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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Feb 14.doc

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McGill University
PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC 342 Lecture 10 - Feb. 14 Lazarus: Stress and Emotion • Demand > Resources: stress (threat) • Resources > Demand: challenge (challenged, but not threatened) • Two factors: demand of the situation and the resources available towards the situation The Two Physiological Stress Systems: Sympathetic Nervous system (SNS) • • Hypothalamus-Pituitary Adrenal Axis (HPA) Theories About the Activation of These Systems: • Blascovich & Mendes: Biophysical model • Dickerson & Kemeney: Social self-preservation system • James P Herman: Anticipatory vs. Reactive Biophysical Model of Stress: • Extension to the concept of ‘physiological toughness’ • Individuals appraise events as challenge or threat Challenge: blood pressure stable (adrenaline), heart rate accelerates (SNS), cortisol stable (HPA is • not activated) • Threat: blood pressure rises (adrenal medulla is inhibited), heart rate accelerates (SNS), cortisol in- creases (HPA is activate) There is no strong evidence to support this model of stress • Social Self-Preservation Model of Stress: • Psychological stress involves a social threat • Fear involves a physical threat • Social threat: HPA • Physical threat: SNS Types of Stressors: James P Herman’s Work • Limbic system of stress; differentiated two types of stress • Reactive: pain, homeostatic signals, inflammation - induce stress that is already there Anticipatory: predators, unfamiliar environments, social challenges, classically conditioned stimuli • Different Stressors Act via Different CNS Regions: • For reactive stress, input comes from the brain stem which deals with all the sensory pains • For anticipatory stress, the limbic system; specifically the amygdala (fear emotion), hippocampus (psychological stress for social), and prefrontal cortex (planning ahead) helps convey the potential psychological stress Proposed Combination of Models: Scientific Evidence for the Models: • More studies tend to support social self-preservation model and anticipatory/reactive over the bio- physical model of stress • However, evidence so far is inconclusive Layman Evidence: • Experience of both stressors first hand • Embarrassment will result in social threat because we are social creatures and want to feel be- longed. When we are embarrassed, we may feel potentially being rejected by our peers Necessary Measures to Include: • Measures of HPA activity: CRH (hypothalamus), ACTH (pituitary), Cortisol (Corticosterone) • Need to measure cerebral spinal fluid to measure stress Measures of SNS activity: Adrenaline (Epinephrine), Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine), Heart rate, • blood pressure… • Alpha-amylase - marker for SNS measurement What is Alpha-Amylase? • sAA (alpha-1, 4-alpha-D-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase) • One of the most apparent enzymes in saliva • Breaks down starch, regulated by SNS • Accounts for 40-50% of total salivary gland-produ
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