Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
McGill (30,000)
PSYC (4,000)
PSYC 342 (100)
Lecture 10

PSYC 342 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Third Order, Autonomic Nervous System, Parotid Gland

Course Code
PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
PSYC 342 Lecture 10 - Feb. 14
Lazarus: Stress and Emotion
Demand > Resources: stress (threat)
Resources > Demand: challenge (challenged, but not threatened)
Two factors: demand of the situation and the resources available towards the situation
The Two Physiological Stress Systems:
Sympathetic Nervous system (SNS)
Hypothalamus-Pituitary Adrenal Axis (HPA)
Theories About the Activation of These Systems:
Blascovich & Mendes: Biophysical model
Dickerson & Kemeney: Social self-preservation system
James P Herman: Anticipatory vs. Reactive
Biophysical Model of Stress:
Extension to the concept of ‘physiological toughness
Individuals appraise events as challenge or threat
Challenge: blood pressure stable (adrenaline), heart rate accelerates (SNS), cortisol stable (HPA is
not activated)
Threat: blood pressure rises (adrenal medulla is inhibited), heart rate accelerates (SNS), cortisol in-
creases (HPA is activate)
There is no strong evidence to support this model of stress
Social Self-Preservation Model of Stress:
Psychological stress involves a social threat
Fear involves a physical threat
Social threat: HPA
Physical threat: SNS
Types of Stressors: James P Herman’s Work
Limbic system of stress; differentiated two types of stress
Reactive: pain, homeostatic signals, inflammation - induce stress that is already there
Anticipatory: predators, unfamiliar environments, social challenges, classically conditioned stimuli
Different Stressors Act via Different CNS Regions:
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

For reactive stress, input comes from the brain stem which deals with all the sensory pains
For anticipatory stress, the limbic system; specifically the amygdala (fear emotion), hippocampus
(psychological stress for social), and prefrontal cortex (planning ahead) helps convey the potential
psychological stress
Proposed Combination of Models:
Scientific Evidence for the Models:
More studies tend to support social self-preservation model and anticipatory/reactive over the bio-
physical model of stress
However, evidence so far is inconclusive
Layman Evidence:
Experience of both stressors first hand
Embarrassment will result in social threat because we are social creatures and want to feel be-
longed. When we are embarrassed, we may feel potentially being rejected by our peers
Necessary Measures to Include:
Measures of HPA activity: CRH (hypothalamus), ACTH (pituitary), Cortisol (Corticosterone)
Need to measure cerebral spinal fluid to measure stress
Measures of SNS activity: Adrenaline (Epinephrine), Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine), Heart rate,
blood pressure…
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version