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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Feb 7.doc

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PSYC 342
Jens C Pruessner

PSYC 342 Lecture 8 - Feb. 7 Gender Identity: • Sex refers to the biological sex • Gender refers to the psychological sex • Factors influencing gender identity: • Biological factors (genes, hormone exposure) Environmental factors (society, cultural, and parental influences) • • The interaction between the two • Gender identity refers to an individual’s basic sense of self; as being either male or female What is Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): • Trisomic Anomalies: 47 XXY chromosome • Instead of having the usual XY chromosome, males have an extra X in their cells • Note: Not every male with XXY chromosomes has KS. XXY males are however at risk to developing KS • Physical, endocrinologic, reproductive, cognitive, and behavioural disabilities This affects males over their development • Prevalence: • Between 1 in 500 and 1 in 1000 males • 0 females • Other variants of Klinefelter syndrome: • 1 out of 50,000 males • The cause of XXY syndrome is not clear • Pregnant women over 35 years old will slightly increase the risk of the XXY chromosome • KS is NOT an inherited disorder During meiosis, the 46 chromosomes divide into 2 new cells of 23 chromosomes each • • In female, each cell gets a X • In male, one cell gets the X and the other gets the Y • For XXY, there is an error during the formation of the reproduction cells, which results in an addi- tional X. This is called non-disjunction • The XX or the XY chromosomes failed to exchange genetic material • Hence producing a XX egg or a XY sperm when it is supposed to be X or Y only Physical Symptoms: • Not all males with this condition have the same symptoms or to the same degree. Symptoms de- pend on how many cells are affected, the amount of testosterone, and the age when the condition is diagnosed Effects on Physical Development: • As infants: Reduced strength • • Sit-up, crawl, and walk later than other infants • Weak muscles • After age 4, tend to be taller and have less muscle control and coordination Physical Symptoms: • Do not make as much testosterone (hypogonadism) • Incomplete virilisation • Can have normal sex lives, but they make little or no sperm • Infertile • Penis does not reach adult size • Small firm testicles (microorchidism) • Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia) • Less facial and body hair • Less muscular body (underdeveloped muscles) • Pear shaped (long arms and legs, narrow shoulders, broad hips) • Taller (long legs) • Weaker bones Effects on Health: • Increased risk of: • Autoimmune diseases • Breast cancer • Cardiovascular disease • Diabetes mellitus • Extragonadal germ cell tumours • Lung disease • Osteoporosis • Tooth decay • Vein diseases Cognitive and Psychological Problems: • Difficulty in reading, understanding words, finding words, verbally expressing their thoughts and au- ditory memory Intelligence: • They are not mentally challenged • IQ within normal range • Verbal IQ < Performance IQ • Lower verbal IQ related to • Language deficits Gender Identity: • Androgynous or feminine feelings that can develop at an early age • Some consider themselves to be transgendered or intersexed • Transitioning to live as women Testosterone Treatment: • Androgen replacement should being at puberty • Early treatment: • Promotes normalization of the body or development of secondary characteristics (i.e. Facial hair, increase muscle mass, wider shoulder, etc. • May improve behaviour and work performance • Reduces the risk of osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases and breast cancer History of XYY Syndrome: • XYY was first discovered in 1961 by Dr. Avery A. Sandberg • Incidental finding: 44 years old man was karyotyped because he had a daughter with Down Syn- drome • 47, XYY was the last of the common sex chromosome abnormalities to be discovered Prevalence of XYY Syndrome: • The incidence is reported to be 1 in 1,000 males • 80-90% of the time will be 47, XYY • 10-20% of the time, 46 XY/47, XYY; also known as mosaic • May be diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally Non-Disjunction in Meiosis II: • 47 XYY syndrome arises from postzygotic mitotic error or non-disjunction during meiosis II • Prime illustration of the most common origin of this syndrome • Found that in over 84% of cases, the additional Y chromosome was generated by non-disjunction at paternal meiosis II, after a normal meiosis I Implications of XYY: • Further individual factors, which have the potential to be affected by this syndrome include: • Physical attributes • Height • Psychological and cognitive • Intelligence • Behavioural • Aggression • The XYY man is not characterized by distinct or unusual physical features; however, XYY males have been found to exhibit the following: • Taller stature • Thinner build • Increased acne • Skeletal disfigurement (in rare cases) • XYY males are similar to XY males in that: • Quality of life is not affected by the syndrome • Life space • Puberty appears at the expected time • Physical sexual development • Sex organs • Secondary sex characteristics • Hormone levels • Testosterone XYY Low IQ? • IQ scores are slightly lower by 10-15 points (lower limit of normal range) • Scores lower than their siblings • IQ → combination of gene and environment - ‘reaction range’ Learning Disability: • XYY boys → lower scores on differential abilities scale and measures of language & academic achievement • XYY males perform lower on reading tests, rapid naming test, and in areas such as semantics, syn- tax, pragmatics, and expressing and interpreting intent • Difficulty understanding figurative language, as well as oral expression, have weak verbal memory • Have difficulty mastering material in school & need more time to learn compared to other students Inside the XYY Brain: • Learning and language disabilities → 50% of XYY Karyotype males • Learning difficulties • Language reading • XYY boys have mild generalized cognitive impairment, with impaired language abilities (Reading and Spelling) XYY Male’s Motor Function: • XYY males also suffer from a lack of coordination • Study by Ross, Zeger et al (2009) → motor function was examined using fine motor and gross mo- tor tasks as well as measures of strength, speed and agility, coordination The XYY group → performance on complex motor tasks were not as well as the controls • • This impairment results in less athletic ability and leads to further problems XYY and Aggression: • Study by Jacobs et al (1965) • Research question: Will an extra Y chromosome predispose its carriers to unusually aggressive behaviour? • Setting: Maximum security hospital in Scotland • Study type: Chromosomal survey on 192 males • Results: 9 XYY males were found, 3.5% of the original sample • Conclusion: XYY males are overrepresented in these types of institutions, therefore these men might be more aggressive and violent Biases in Early Studies: • Small samples with inadequate control groups • Based on single cases of extreme antisocial behaviour • Sampling coming from populations considered likely to have a high proportion of XYY men (ex: pris- ons or maximum security hospitals) • XYY or XY identity known to researchers assessing subjects’ personalities Treatment: • There is no treatment for XYY, and since research has not found significant adverse effects, there is no need for one • Comorbid disorders that are treated individually • Acne • Skel
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