PSYC 342 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Misogyny, Intelligence Quotient, Social IntelligencePremium
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PSYC 310 Intelligence
• People are stuck in a psychometric way of perceiving intelligence
o Psychometric = evaluate your thinking
o Reductionist point of view that places a big importance on IQ
o Think that intelligence is IQ and IQ is a score on a test
o Will talk more about this in the future
• Use another word to describe intelligence:
o E.g. Ability: concept of ability was not very popular to define intelligence even though that encompasses
the variability in intelligence
• Professor suggests you read article she posted even though you will not understand everything now
o Wont understand article- suggest read now, highlight difficulties and in the future it will make sense
• This course is important because:
o Central concept in psychological theory and practice
▪ Important for neuro/clinical psychologist, not only as a big business, but it is crucial to
understand a patient better
▪ Gives us information on person with IQ test, how do they approach it, etc.
o Central for many other professionals- teaching, economics, etc
▪ Our perception of intelligence influences behavior
▪ This has broad implications on many professions
o The way you conceptualize intelligence may have implications
▪ Will not show one way to conceptualize intelligence but rather various perspectives
• What is intelligence?
o How much is being quick or the speed of your response important?
o Is confidence in your answer important?
o Answer by professors and students:
▪ Reasoning for decisions
▪ How well people speak
▪ Self-awareness: how you reflect on your thinking or metacognition
• Not assessed on IQ tests but is very important
▪ Social intelligence is also not tested on an IQ test
▪ Creativity is an important concept in intelligence, especially recently
• Something you would see on Facebook: “8 scientifically proven signs you’re much smarter than you think” and
points to lines under someone’s eyes indicating they are probably tired
o This is an oversimplification of reality
• Another thing on Facebook shows IQ is higher if your brain is larger and you’re a genius if your brain is above a
o This one isn’t completely untrue because your brain is quite significant in this
• Google definition of intelligence:
o 1. The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills
o 2. The collection of information of military or political value
o These two definitions are very different: the first one is much more focused on reasoning and the second
is much more memory based
o The reality is there is an interaction between both of these factors- reasoning and memory
• Sternberg definition of intelligence
o Intelligence is ones ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments
• Psychometric theories of intelligence: Is IQ intelligence?
o Some people have been willing to accept that IQ scores successfully measure “academic intelligene”
▪ IQ tests were only originally developed to see who was going to be good in school and was never
meant to decide intelligence like it is known today
▪ Originally developed to predict academic achievement
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o Some people say this is not all IQ tests measures
o Practical abilities in everyday life like sense of humor, being nice, being able to understand, being able to
have a conversation not able to test on IQ
o Eventually will talk about street smart or practical intelligence
• Video Ellen meets a 5 year old geography expert
o Kid memorized globe and drew map
▪ Intelligence and speculating about the diverse ways we can see intelligence
▪ How would you start to determine if he is intelligent?
• Knowledge and verbal skills for 5 years old always compare to same age
o Ask him to explain the map
▪ Visual-spatial aspect is not in line with other skills of being able memorize globe
▪ Trump on Russia: Aware of the politics and able to adjust social behavior to make a joke
o Starts to identify flags and shapes of countries
▪ Highlights visual spatial – differences in drawing it and organizing is bad but taking it in its good
when he sees shapes of countries
▪ Important to understand there are many functions involved in one task
▪ Loves appraisal- like adult he has a different attitude towards test taking when he feels very
▪ Task doesn’t require much interpretation, more just memorization and not a fluid form of
▪ Aspects to highlight is his humor and misalignment of visual spatial space
o Remember from this exercise to what makes you think he is smart and why
• The concept of intelligence varies depending on the culture
o Different ideas depending on cultural background
o In individualist cultures: problem solving, independent thought, verbal skills etc.
o In more communal societies (some parts of asia): cooperation, ability to study, respect
o Very culturally bias when comparing the two concepts of intelligence
o More examples of what different countries say:
▪ US- verbal ability/sell stuff, practical/get out of situations
▪ China- benevolence, effort, humility
▪ Africa- higher social class (older studies inferred intelligence based on social economic status)
▪ India- self awareness, emotion thinking judging
o Take home big cultural bias in the way we see intelligence
o Implications: Based on these cultural bias, we will develop tests based on these cultural bias
o Just know main idea not memorize slide
• Asking a non-expert or external experts- what is intelligence?
o Critical thinking and logic of thinking seems to be a redundant concept in all professions
o Depends on the background of profession you get different answers
• Asking a experts (psychologists)- what is intelligence?
o Response is initially that intelligence is a score on a test
o Remember this: ***IQ test were not designed to assess “intelligence” and designed to predict school
▪ Originally developed by Binet
• Said this is not at all for assessing intelligence and of assessing learning defects in
▪ The popularized by Wheschler
o Took all the results of the test; 12 subtests and some researchers tried to correlate these sections; and then
said these correlations reflect something called G will see this 3rd lecture
o Eventually evolved to complex theories and concepts:
▪ g factors, g loading, second stratum
o How many of these differences are real?
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