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Lecture 1

PSYC 342 Lecture 1: Week 1
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 342
Professor
Anne Alma

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PSYC 310 Intelligence
12-01-2018
People are stuck in a psychometric way of perceiving intelligence
o Psychometric = evaluate your thinking
o Reductionist point of view that places a big importance on IQ
o Think that intelligence is IQ and IQ is a score on a test
o Will talk more about this in the future
Use another word to describe intelligence:
o E.g. Ability: concept of ability was not very popular to define intelligence even though that encompasses
the variability in intelligence
Professor suggests you read article she posted even though you will not understand everything now
o Wont understand article- suggest read now, highlight difficulties and in the future it will make sense
This course is important because:
o Central concept in psychological theory and practice
Important for neuro/clinical psychologist, not only as a big business, but it is crucial to
understand a patient better
Gives us information on person with IQ test, how do they approach it, etc.
o Central for many other professionals- teaching, economics, etc
Our perception of intelligence influences behavior
This has broad implications on many professions
o The way you conceptualize intelligence may have implications
Will not show one way to conceptualize intelligence but rather various perspectives
What is intelligence?
o How much is being quick or the speed of your response important?
o Is confidence in your answer important?
o Answer by professors and students:
Reasoning for decisions
How well people speak
Self-awareness: how you reflect on your thinking or metacognition
Not assessed on IQ tests but is very important
Social intelligence is also not tested on an IQ test
Creativity is an important concept in intelligence, especially recently
Something you would see on Facebook: 8 scientifically proven signs youre much smarter than you think and
points to lines under someones eyes indicating they are probably tired
o This is an oversimplification of reality
Another thing on Facebook shows IQ is higher if your brain is larger and youre a genius if your brain is above a
specific weight
o This one isn’t completely untrue because your brain is quite significant in this
Google definition of intelligence:
o 1. The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills
o 2. The collection of information of military or political value
o These two definitions are very different: the first one is much more focused on reasoning and the second
is much more memory based
o The reality is there is an interaction between both of these factors- reasoning and memory
Sternberg definition of intelligence
o Intelligence is ones ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments
Psychometric theories of intelligence: Is IQ intelligence?
o Some people have been willing to accept that IQ scores successfully measure academic intelligene
IQ tests were only originally developed to see who was going to be good in school and was never
meant to decide intelligence like it is known today
Originally developed to predict academic achievement
o Some people say this is not all IQ tests measures
o Practical abilities in everyday life like sense of humor, being nice, being able to understand, being able to
have a conversation not able to test on IQ
o Eventually will talk about street smart or practical intelligence
Video Ellen meets a 5 year old geography expert
o Kid memorized globe and drew map
Intelligence and speculating about the diverse ways we can see intelligence
How would you start to determine if he is intelligent?
Knowledge and verbal skills for 5 years old always compare to same age
o Ask him to explain the map
Visual-spatial aspect is not in line with other skills of being able memorize globe
Trump on Russia: Aware of the politics and able to adjust social behavior to make a joke
o Starts to identify flags and shapes of countries
Highlights visual spatial differences in drawing it and organizing is bad but taking it in its good
when he sees shapes of countries
Important to understand there are many functions involved in one task
Loves appraisal- like adult he has a different attitude towards test taking when he feels very
competent
Task doesn’t require much interpretation, more just memorization and not a fluid form of
intelligence
Aspects to highlight is his humor and misalignment of visual spatial space
o Remember from this exercise to what makes you think he is smart and why
The concept of intelligence varies depending on the culture
o Different ideas depending on cultural background
o In individualist cultures: problem solving, independent thought, verbal skills etc.
o In more communal societies (some parts of asia): cooperation, ability to study, respect
o Very culturally bias when comparing the two concepts of intelligence
o More examples of what different countries say:
US- verbal ability/sell stuff, practical/get out of situations
China- benevolence, effort, humility
Africa- higher social class (older studies inferred intelligence based on social economic status)
India- self awareness, emotion thinking judging
o Take home big cultural bias in the way we see intelligence
o Implications: Based on these cultural bias, we will develop tests based on these cultural bias
o Just know main idea not memorize slide
Asking a non-expert or external experts- what is intelligence?
o Critical thinking and logic of thinking seems to be a redundant concept in all professions
o Depends on the background of profession you get different answers
Asking a experts (psychologists)- what is intelligence?
o Response is initially that intelligence is a score on a test
o Remember this: ***IQ test were not designed to assess “intelligence” and designed to predict school
achievements
Originally developed by Binet
Said this is not at all for assessing intelligence and of assessing learning defects in
children
The popularized by Wheschler
o Took all the results of the test; 12 subtests and some researchers tried to correlate these sections; and then
said these correlations reflect something called G will see this 3rd lecture
o Eventually evolved to complex theories and concepts:
g factors, g loading, second stratum
Issues:
o How many of these differences are real?
Are they just culture-specific vocabulary?
o If intelligence is the ability to evaluate different alternatives and to understand things quickly then think
about all the cognitive skills required for each of these task
There are many skills involved in cognitive testing (intelligence testing)
o What different “cognitive” skills are necessary to do these things?
o How broadly do we wish to define intelligence?
Do we want to focus on something very narrow or a more broad definition and way of seeing
things?
A broad range of skills reflecting the individual’s broad adaptation to the environment including:
intellectual skills
Intellectual skills, social skills in the broad sense, Physical skills
Not typically included but still have to keep them in mind when you are seeing a patient
A more narrow focus on intellectual skills such as:
Problem solving, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning
General we focus more on a narrow wave, but there is also a broad way of seeing it
Goals of the course:
o Want us to use critical thinking in this course
o Be open minded in approach to intelligence
o Why we talk about intelligence this way?
Historical and economical background to this
Wanted to test this because special people need either gifted or lower intelligence should get
specialized education
Also historically, people were messed up and said that lower intelligence people should not
reproduce
Early History
Galton
o His book: Hereditary Genius (1869) caused controversy
1. People differ in intelligence
“I object to pretensions of natural equality.”
2. Introduces the notion of heritability of intelligence
Genes are important
“Eminence runs in families- families of judges and big shots
o Cluster inside a family of jobs
E.g., of 286 judges many had eminent relatives and 36% of theres sons were eminent but
9.5% of their grandson and 1.5 % of their great grandsons.
Relatedness declines with generations you are related to your: sons by 50%, grandsons by
25% and great-grandsons by 12.5%
Very socioeconomic- example of good exam question is it all hereditary or is there an
importance of socioeconomic opportunity?
Want to take into consideration of the importance of environment versus genetic factors
Don’t remember details just the logic of this
o Methods:
Was first to note the importance of twin studies
Compare identical (relatedness 100%) and fraternal twins (relatedness 50%)
Great way to distinguish genes from environment- logic of this study
Introduced psychophysical test of measurement
E.g., Vision, hearing, reaction time, strength.
Modern theories (e.g. Eysenck) still talk about brain conduction and efficiency as a
crucial determinant of intelligence
Also thought we could discover something through senses
o Relevant that a person sees/hears before you speculate level of intelligence

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Description
PSYC 310 Intelligence 12-01-2018 People are stuck in a psychometric way of perceiving intelligence o Psychometric = evaluate your thinking o Reductionist point of view that places a big importance on IQ o Think that intelligence is IQ and IQ is a score on a test o Will talk more about this in the future Use another word to describe intelligence: o E.g. Ability: concept of ability was not very popular to define intelligence even though that encompasses the variability in intelligence Professor suggests you read article she posted even though you will not understand everything now o Wont understand article- suggest read now, highlight difficulties and in the future it will make sense This course is important because: o Central concept in psychological theory and practice Important for neuro/clinical psychologist, not only as a big business, but it is crucial to understand a patient better Gives us information on person with IQ test, how do they approach it, etc. o Central for many other professionals- teaching, economics, etc Our perception of intelligence influences behavior This has broad implications on many professions o The way you conceptualize intelligence may have implications Will not show one way to conceptualize intelligence but rather various perspectives What is intelligence? o How much is being quick or the speed of your response important? o Is confidence in your answer important? o Answer by professors and students: Reasoning for decisions How well people speak Self-awareness: how you reflect on your thinking or metacognition Not assessed on IQ tests but is very important Social intelligence is also not tested on an IQ test Creativity is an important concept in intelligence, especially recently Something you would see on Facebook: 8 scientifically proven signs youre much smarter than you think and points to lines under someones eyes indicating they are probably tired o This is an oversimplification of reality Another thing on Facebook shows IQ is higher if your brain is larger and youre a genius if your brain is above a specific weight o This one isnt completely untrue because your brain is quite significant in this Google definition of intelligence: o 1. The ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills o 2. The collection of information of military or political value o These two definitions are very different: the first one is much more focused on reasoning and the second is much more memory based o The reality is there is an interaction between both of these factors- reasoning and memory Sternberg definition of intelligence o Intelligence is ones ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments Psychometric theories of intelligence: Is IQ intelligence? o Some people have been willing to accept that IQ scores successfully measure academic intelligene IQ tests were only originally developed to see who was going to be good in school and was never meant to decide intelligence like it is known today Originally developed to predict academic achievemento Some people say this is not all IQ tests measures o Practical abilities in everyday life like sense of humor, being nice, being able to understand, being able to have a conversation not able to test on IQ o Eventually will talk about street smart or practical intelligence Video Ellen meets a 5 year old geography expert o Kid memorized globe and drew map Intelligence and speculating about the diverse ways we can see intelligence How would you start to determine if he is intelligent? Knowledge and verbal skills for 5 years old always compare to same age o Ask him to explain the map Visual-spatial aspect is not in line with other skills of being able memorize globe Trump on Russia: Aware of the politics and able to adjust social behavior to make a joke o Starts to identify flags and shapes of countries Highlights visual spatial differences in drawing it and organizing is bad but taking it in its good when he sees shapes of countries Important to understand there are many functions involved in one task Loves appraisal- like adult he has a different attitude towards test taking when he feels very competent Task doesnt require much interpretation, more just memorization and not a fluid form of intelligence Aspects to highlight is his humor and misalignment of visual spatial space o Remember from this exercise to what makes you think he is smart and why The concept of intelligence varies depending on the culture o Different ideas depending on cultural background o In individualist cultures: problem solving, independent thought, verbal skills etc. o
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