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McGill University
PSYC 403
Zbigniew Pleszewski

Sept 8 Rationality of scientists debated: Thomas Kuhn (1922-96) - scientists observe rationalism as an epistemology, but not as a normative principle of arguing - scientists are very biased by their assumed paradigms - if they discovered something that challenged their paradigm, they would shelve it until there were too many abnormalities to ignore a) normal science b) anomaly c) crisis d) new paradigm - paradigm: a set of assumptions, values and methods that provide the framework in which scientists work - the components of a paradigm: 1. the disciplinary matrix - a set of assumptions which are not coaxialisms (assumptions taken as obvious and unquestionable) {note: discuss further with Keanu reeves} eg. Darwinists: there is no God. Life emerged from itself. 2. the shared exemplars - models of good research - Anarchistic theory of science: there are several paradigms at the same time - Karl Popper: science is the rational, logical and objective process of generating hypothesis (which are clear, simple and falsifiable) - epistemological rationalism is that a logical deduction is preferred over empirical induction in science - the value of a hypothesis is not in proving its duration of its validity, it's based on how it is formulated (ie it must be falsifiable) - if not, it should be treated with suspicion. if it pretends to be forever and eternal and always true, it must be wrong - science is a process of asymptote, and it's never going to make it to a point of forever, we're just going to keep getting closer to the truth - an example of something non-falsifiable comes from renaissance: innocent women accused of being witches were burned at the stake - if someone was accused of witchcraft, she was tried, but in trying her, she was killed {depending on if she weighed the same as a duck or not} Prehistory and History 2 million - 4000 BC (stone age) 2 million to 13000 Paleolithic age, 130000-6000 Mesolithic Age, 60000 BC: Aborigines in Australia 30000 BC in Europe: Chauvet caves, wall paintings, religious cults - there were Hunter-gatherer communities in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America - nomadic cultures, migrating, temporarily living in caves 6000-3000 Neolithic age - from a nomadic
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