PSYC 410 Lecture Notes - Implicit-Association Test, Factor Analysis

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26 Jan 2013
-1Lecture #25
Stress & Health (Part II)
ŸMuch of the research on consciousness over the last 100 years has focused on contents of
consciousness, entirely on thoughts we have, the feelings we have, the goals and motives, all of which
represent contents of our consciousness
ŸVery little research on consciousness itself, new studies on qualities of conscious experience,
psychological, biological related
ŸMindfulness is the quality of our consciousness, state of being and attentiveness of what is happening
in the presence
ŸTwo psychological processes refer to our awareness and attention
ŸAwareness is the process by which we monitor our environment, interior and exterior environment all
of which enter into our consciousness
ŸWe are not always spaying attention to what we are aware of, attention is what we are focusing on, the
limited content that we pick up, particular aspects of what we are aware of
ŸMindfulness involves a variety of experiences, quality of experience is distinct, being focused in the
present moment, not distracted by thoughts or concerns about future, or regrets or remorse on past,
they are focused now, in clarity, viewing experiences in a polished mirror, not focused on classifying,
categorizing on experiences and environments judging and evaluating, determining what things mean,
in state of clarity you do not do these things, simply allowing it to be (open and receptive stance
toward the present moment)
ŸPerson who is meditating still ahs thoughts and worries and feelings, but they are not overwhelmed,
stepping out of the stream of thoughts and feelings, watching it go by (quality of dis-attachment)
ŸAssumption that this is not the particular experience reserved for one group of people, mindfulness is
an experience which all of us practise, tends to come and go, fluctuates
ŸSome of us either through good fortune or disciplined practise experience more states of mindfulness
than others
ŸKirk Brown and colleagues have two general hypotheses, mindfulness will contribute to well being
directly and indirectly, it is good, Kirk is assuming that to some extent it is directly beneficial, in a very
basic study people are sampling chocolate, one group can do whatever they want while eating enjoy it
more, the people who are distracted don’t enjoy the chocolate as much
ŸIt can contribute in an indirect way, practising it may help interrupt all the little habits in life, some of
which are not good to act in, help us from disengaging in habitual activities, help us exercising and
making better choices (e.g. during exam times, eating habits are bad, but mindfulness will help you
appreciate the choices you make which help you make more better decisions)
ŸKirk Brown and Richard Ryan have seen these two pathways of direct and indirect routes of wellbeing
ŸThey had in their lien of research that mindfulness would predict three things, wellbeing, people who
are more mindful have higher rates of self esteem lower rates of anxiety and depression, two more
mindful people show higher levels of awareness, more concordant, and third, mindfulness will
contribute to healthy self regulation, exercising a kind of choice in your day to day life, things are not
chosen for them, personal autonomy
ŸBrown and Ryan developed a questionnaire, 15 items scale, in the direction of mindlessness (states of
mindlessness are much more common, so it is easier for participants to related)
ŸCollected and identified by factor analysis, screened by zen practitioners, and experts of meditation to
show their opinions
ŸPredicted by mindfulness from the question, correlates and consequences of being mindful or
ŸFirst sets of questions about personality, are there certain traits, high for openness to experiences,
feelings, actions and values and on most of the subscales of openness
ŸPeople who score high are also high on need for cognition, preference for solving complex problems,
or engaging in intellectual activities, and mindful people like to do these things
ŸMindfulness has no correlation with self monitoring, tendency to try and adjust your behaviour to
social circumstances
ŸMindfulness has negative relation to trait o absorption, readiness to enter alter stages of consciousness,
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