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PSYC 436 (36)

Desire cont.

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PSYC 436
Irving Binik

← Announcements: • MT review sessions posted on WebCT • 40 MCQs (½ readings, ½ lectures) o Usually 1 question on each reading o Divided btwn 2 rooms ← Rodent Sex • Where was desire in this? Repetitive behavior, male ejaculation (are they rudimentary to compare them to humans?) • Rodent lab sex is artificial but useful? o Space – female controls the pace of sex, and when given the control will get away (how much will she get away?)  measure how much she spends on one side vs. another o Oestrus is induced – receptivity in response to the females; females are overrectomized o In wild rats, mate with many females • Behaviors (sniffing, presenting/solicitation, crouching, lordosis, pacing, running away, darting, etc.) • Appetitive vs. Consummatory Behaviors • Female control or pacing • Differences between mice & rats o Mice take much longer/more foreplay more intromissions, fewer ejaculations • Other paradigms o Maze o Skinner Box o Barrier crossing • What makes for a Good Animal Model? o Behaviour doesn't have to be identical, but the fact that the behavioral similarity isn’t there doesn’t mean that the part of the brain that functions that is the same • Pleasurable? o If an animal is willing to work for it, then there is a sense of pleasure they receive from that ← Indices of Desire (Beck & Bozeman, 1991) ← • All is fueled by low desire • How much is normal desire? ← Research (Hormones & Desire) • Most active field of research today – why? o With respect to women and desire • Hormones o “Form of chemical messenger which typically travels from cell of origin to its target cell via the blood stream” • Hormonal Influences on Sex o Organizing = the presence of particular hormone at a time of development, dramatically influence sexual development o Activating = more or less of a particular hormone will potentially increase or decrease hormonal behavior • 3 types of studies on hormones & sex o Surgical (e.g., castration, oophorectomy) o Chemical manipulation (anti-androgens, birth control pills) o Monitoring (developmental) • Are androgens the hormones of desire for women? o Administration of (anti)androgens to women for medical purposes o Contraceptives o Menopause ← Frequency of Coitus/Day of Week ← • Weekend more frequent ← Bellerose & Binik • Sample – 123 volunteer women ages 35-55 who had a previous hysterectomy (removal of uterus) or oophoroectomy (removal of ovaries) of both • Design – Cross-sectional, retrospective plus 1 lab session • Dependent Measures – self report (Desire, arousal, sexual behavior, body image, mood) – vaginal Photoplethysmography – arousal • Experimental Groups o Controls w/ no hysterectomy or oophorectomy o Hysterectomy with no oophorectomy & no hormone replacement o Hysterectomy plus oophorectomy & no hormone replacement o Hysterectomy plus oophorectomy & estrogen replacement o Hysterectomy plus oophorectomy & androgen replacement Which group(s) do you predict have the lowest desire? Groups 3 and 4 • Desire results: lowest in desire = hysterectomy plus oophorectomy with no androgen hormone replacement (groups 3 & 4) • Arousal Results
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