Class Notes (839,189)
Canada (511,223)
Psychology (3,335)
PSYC 473 (60)
Lecture

January 21 - PSYC473.doc

4 Pages
56 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 473
Professor
Mark Baldwin

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Description
Lecture 5 – January 21 Introduction Obama was portrayed as a ‘superman’, the man who would bring change. He was compared to Nixon and other great characters in American History. However, John McCain tried to portray Obama as being like a ‘thug’ from Chicago (photograph shown from Obama with black sunglasses). There seemed to be some weird affection for Obama which was more appropriate for personal relationships. Transference(Projection)  One of Freud’s ideas based on sessions with patients  psychotherapy o patients would respond to Freud like he was one of their significant others (i.e., if they had a harsh and judgmental father, would expect him to act harsh and judgmentally and respond in that way to Freud). Freud thought that something from a different relationship was transferred to him.  Although started out as a concept of psychotherapy, it is now found in all sort of relationships (student-teacher etc.). A lot of emotional stuff between relationships can be transferred. For a concept to influence us, it has to be stored somewhere in our memory. When we know more about how our (social) knowledge is stored, we can start to understand a little bit of how it gets activated and applied to new relationships. Knowledge Representation  How is social knowledge stored in memory, and how is it that it has these kinds of influence on social perception?  We have a schema for all different situations (weddings, lectures etc.)  schema theory says that schema’s are made out of abstract knowledge that is hierarchically organized. We gain expertise (abstract generalities) about situations and persons.  The term ‘schema’ is often used loosely in the sense of ‘concept’, but this is untrue. Formally, it can only be used in the sense of abstract knowledge stored hierarchically.  Cohen (1981): showed participants the same videotape of a woman having birthday dinner with her husband. o Casually mentioned the woman’s occupation beforehand  whether she was a waitress or a librarian o He later asked people to remember as much from the videotape as they could, and found that they were better able to recall info that fit the schema/label of the profession they were told she had (waitress: drank beer, owned her own bowling ball/librarian: she wore glasses, she liked classical music) Schemas  Cohen’s study implies that social knowledge (and schema’s) influences our attention toward certain things, inference we make, our memory, etc.  This term ‘schema’ is often used loosely, to mean the same as concept, category, knowledge structure...  Let’s look at some other forms of knowledge representation, and effects on social perception Exemplars  Specific instances in memory influence processing of similar stimulus, typically called to mind by feature overlap with the stimulus (applicability)  things you look at trigger things that are associated with these things  Lewicki (1985): o Subjects undergo unpleasant interaction with ‘experimenter 1’: come across term birth order, ask what it means, and experimenter would be very demeaning and condescending o Then, subjects encounters two receptionists, one that kind of looks like unpleasant experimenter o Will visual similarity cause subject to make assumptions and react to the receptionist with similar looks differently? o Behavior was measured  How many would walk towards one that looked like experimenter, and how many would walk towards the other one? (You would expect looks didn’t matter, so roughly 50% for every receptionist in control condition) • Control Condition: 55% • Unfriendly Condition: 20% This is an example of how a single experience, produces the kind of judgment biases and behavioral effects….  Processing can be influenced by one exemplar, OR by many exemplars at once someone new may not fit into just one category thus, all different exemplars/categories are activated in perceiving this new person.  In our normal, social interactions we are influenced by episodic memories (specific examplars) of times when we met a certain person as opposed to abstract knowledge. Prototypes  Instead of only specific exemplars we also group together related info according to prototype structures (family resemblance): o central and peripheral members or features o Think of a bird  e.g., robin, pigeon, flamingo, penguin o Think of features of a bird  e.g., wings, feathers, beak, sings, flies south for winter  i.e., if you’ve only been to 3 weddings, may have very strong exemplars that influence your processing, but once you’ve been to 100 it starts to look like a more elaborate category  Beverly Fehr (1984): characteristics of love/concepts of emotions and relationships o From a list of various characte
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit