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March 13 - PSYC473.docx

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PSYC 473
Mark Baldwin

March 13 Motivation and Cognition -what do you base your decisions on? how do you come to a choice? ->”naïve scientist” metaphor: we are all just trying to figure out how the world works -“thinking is for doing” – motivation tactician metaphor – why are we doing what we’re doing -theory of lay epistemics: (kruglanski) ->need for structure/closure ->desire for validity ->motive for specific conclusions note: this one is overlooked in text -choose the best person: understand what the person is about, who they are, what they like (form a belief) -> [person a = smart, competent, stable ->person b = funny, pleasant, moody -could engage in unlimited hypothesis generation: ->collect more information – is one healthier? ->work harder to form an integrated impression ->consider various attributions – why moody? i.) need for structure/closure: the motive to have some answer on a topic (rather than uncertainty, confusion) ->leads to “seizing and freezing” – get best conclusion and set upon this conclusion ->depending on how strong this need is ->study: student teachers in Israel ->read stories by 8 grader – have to rate it -> kids identified as Ashkenazi or Sepharadi ->ratings were higher for Ashkenazi ->time pressure (10 mins vs. 1 hr) ->stereotype effect only under time pressure ->influences by shortcuts when under cognitive load ->get similar results not just through time constraint/load but also in motivation: -study: individual difference: subjects filled out need for structure scale -ie. “I find that a well ordered life with regular hours suits my temperament ->ie. I like to have a place fore everything and everything in its place -primes with “reckless” or “adventurous” ->read story about Donald, gave a one-word description ->coded for similarity to “reckless” versus “adventurous” -need for structure: low vs. high ->high needs for structure impressions are colored heavily by prime compared to low need for structure ->need for structure RESTRICTS informational search – “grab” first explanation that comes to mind and stick to it ii.) desire for validity: iii.) motive for specific conclusions (*note: this is overlooked in text) -consider another “dual process” model from the persuasion literature: ->heuristic vs. systematic processing: ->systematic: evaluating pros and cons of message ->heuristic: responding to rules of thumb (ie. credibility, attractiveness) -ie. “pro-star” cereal – Wayne Gretzky – friend knew his liking of the cereal had nothing to do with pros and cons of cereal but had to do with heuristic *note: dual process models all start to sound the same, but they are NOT all the same – important to monitor the differences between them -study: speech abo
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