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March 25 - PSYC473.docx

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PSYC 473
Mark Baldwin

03/25 Cognition in its Social Context  The final is not cumulative – everything since the stuff that was on the last midterm  Hockey game example – the degree to which we find certain things important and others not  A lot of what we take important in life, we take for granted  How do you take for granted that certain things are what they‟re supposed to be – and others not o What is the process by which this happens?  Naive realism point of view – we do take things for granted and we do think of what‟s available as the truth o Construction of reality going on  Attributional processes – determine how we make sense of different events and different types of people o Seeing certain traits as a part of their character o We aren‟t aware of all the processes of how we make sense of things o Confirmation biases – different processes lead us to have different world views  It is interesting to pause for a moment and see the things that we take for granted o Money – are just pieces of paper and round coins – intrinsically holds value o Kiss – the social protocol for them – symbolic interaction o Days of the week – being alone on a Tuesday night versus a weekend night o Clothing – social protocol for what to wear and when to wear it – arbitrary and constructed but it somehow holds meaning  Shared Reality o People are motivated to achieve mutual understanding or „shared reality‟ with specific others in order to  i. establish, maintain, and regulated interpersonal relationships, and  ii. perceive themselves and their environments as stable, predictable, and potentially controllable o Epistemic motivation – you want to believe that self and the rest of the world are stable and predictable and maybe even controllable – ask around to see what other people think is going on o Sherif, 1937  Earlier studies in social psychology  Autokinetic effect – b/c you don‟t have anything to compare it to – perceptual effect  Dark room, pinpoint of light  Nothing to judge its position against  Guess how far it moves – however it didn‟t move at all  If people guess alone, large range of estimates  If the guesses of others is known, people tend to agree – gradually people come to agreement about how far it moved when it didn‟t move at all  If perceive alone again, persist in using group frame of reference  Take something that is ambiguous of an actual reality and people will continue to use this to shape their realities o Intersubjectivity:  Establishing a temporarily shared social world – our understanding of events  Two people or a group of people need to negotiate this shared social world  E.g., Definition of the situation – part of what we do together, is determining what situation we are in and trying to determine what is happening  What is the situation and how do we plan to define the roles?  Bystander intervention – there is someone lying on the side of road and everyone is just walking by – somehow everyone defined it in a way where they don‟t have to worry about it  Define the situation in order to know how to act  Frasier example: can‟t ask it explicitly but come to some shared intersubjectivity  Symbolic Interactionism o When we engage in different parts of our lives we are engaging different symbols – with yourself and with other people o Communication involves – “taking the role of the other” o Communicative abbreviations; symbols o Habits of communication become Habits of thought o i.e. a ring, diploma, the letter „A‟ for grading  We have these symbols and short-cuts that carry meaning with them o Gradually we become very comfortable in these meanings that they start to take on this reality – they feel obvious and true o Higgins and Rholes, 1978  How do we these experiences of communicating with each other start to shape our own thoughts?  Communication effects:  Does communication have a lasting effect? – on your own thoughts  Subjects introduced to confederates, “part of a group” – studying a group of people and this person is part of that group  Subjects told they will read about another member of the group: “stimulus person”  And describe their impression to the confederate who would then try to guess which person  IV: S casually told confederate either Liked or Disliked stimulus person  Donald story, with ambiguous descriptions  IV: Message: ½ S‟s did write impression for confederate  Vs. No Message: “Oops, you don‟t have to write”  DV: impressions: more positive in Liked than Disliked condition  DV: Within the Message condition,
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