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April 10 - PSYC473.pdf

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PSYC 473
Mark Baldwin

2013-04-10 4:00 PM Wednesday April 10 , 2013 Final exam: same as midterm but more time -grading: 50-30 depending on which you do better on more heavily -final papers take 10% of paper grade Coming up with a Novel Idea for your paper: -try to explain how something happens (eg, by applying social cognitive models, or applying some ‘self’ theory to an area where it is not usually applied) -hypothesize about when something will versus will not happen (in an interesting, informative way) -integrate 2 variables to form a new and interesting idea (eg, 2 papers you read or 2 seemingly unrelated topics) •integrating ideas, but can bring in things from other areas -core ideas of paper need to be about social cognition and or about self  learn something, propose a new idea that you may learn something important about how the mind/world works -in some ways, once you learn how to think in terms of these approaches eventually it is not hard to come up with new possibilities, difficult to find out how to test it •coming up with possibilities is not that hard Social Cognition and The Self – Overview -what makes people tick? -can we find basic principles?  often a tendency in social psyc to take phenomenon based •mostly we are trying to understand principles we can use to examine a lot of human behavior, focus on social, interpersonal factors, our lives as social beings – we relate to each other, other organisms are not the social Not just: -SITUATION  BEHAVIOR but, -SITUATION  THINKING  BEHAVIOR  sometimes called situationalism -point of this course is that you are always interested in thinking step that comes in between, why are you doing that? Can we find basic principles of that psychology? •Looking around, fascinating to see the extent of cognitive psychologists have become more interesting in social cognition -social behavior, personality, some health-related and clinical phenomena are shaped by social cognition -clear that social life in influencing all areas that we study •gradually we work toward a set of ideas, basic principles of the mind, so we can use that language to talk about other social-psyc concepts -social experience can be very ambiguous •you have to somehow figure out what the meaning of their action is, it can be really uncertain in principle – we need to figure out interpretations and apply our existing knowledge to understand it – the more we do it it becomes instantaneous -naïve realism: we interpret even if not aware of it •we lose track to the degree to which we are making sense of it – most of the time that is fine, only when things are strange do we notice things we make sense of the world with -understanding social behavior and how things go wrong, you need to pay attention to construal process Representation: -declarative: schemas/prototypes/associative networks -procedural: if-then rules of thumb for making judgments, predictions, etc powerful thing in social cognition – introduction of idea and methods for studying activation, idea we could have viewpoints in the back of our mind, tendency to take naïve realism point of view, concepts we bring to mind are the ones in front of us -activation and application of social knowledge: •chronic accessibility and personality •temporary accessibility – if you want to understand situational effects on people, what concepts does the situation bring to mind? Explains how situation influences people •spreading activation – understanding how we fill in the gaps in our knowledge What does this activated social knowledge do? -provides structure for identification, judgment -facilitates efficient processing -guides attention and memory for relevant information -helps provide consistency: resist uncertainty –makes you feel calm •can be very strange to think about what exactly you do -you can ignore things that are relevant to your well-being -helps in making predictions -shapes behavior in line with knowledge  remarkable to say what are the bits and pieces that go into what we often take for granted -assists in interpretation (inference, gap filling) •not a given -can operate outside of awareness (producing naïve realism), unbelievable quantity of declarative and procedural knowledge •allows us to function -if you want to understand all differences among you, you need to pay attention to these things -a large part of social cognition is about concepts, prof prefers procedural, how to function within world Procedural: attribution, trait inferences •Reasoning heuristics: rules of thumb •Counterfactual thinking -Future research: toward a unified model of procedural knowledge •if you use term procedural knowledge (if-then productions) more broadly, how judgments are done and how info comes to action •exploring different phenomena using if-then reasoning, if there is going to be a common language that evolves out of all that – not a powerful or rich enough set of ideas to allow us to get to a set of ideas Automatic vs Controlled processing -mindlessness: observe in yourself, extent to which we make judgments and carry out activity -subliminal - subtle primes have some impact -implicit processes, much more complex than what was accepted, article about cognitive unconscious- argued new research showed we do have an unconscious, but this is nothing like the Freudian motivated unconscious – just priming simple things, simple tasks – wrong, last 20-30 years shown lots of implicit attitudes and motives in unconscious •whole idea that we know our minds, we can look around and see everything – gradually we techniques evolved a little bit, it became clear that there is all sorts of things going on -Nisbett and Wilson – a lot going on unconsciously and we have to figure out what we think -Accessibility (and fluency) experiences – interesting idea, starting with availability heuristic, we can experience how easily ideas pop to mind, various forms of fluency, use that as indicator of how we are thinking, our attitude toward that •not self-perceiving based on observations of our own behavior – but on the basis of fluency -assimilation vs correction processes, in some ways a detail, but our minds
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