PSYC 495 Lecture Notes - Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Memory Span, Factor Analysis
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•Spearman’s Two Factor Theory
•Spearman found that many tests of intellectual ability were moderately
and positively correlated, leading him to conclude that every
intellectual activity involves both:
oA general factor (g)—common across all tests; how smart you
are on average. It is broken down into subcategories:
•apprehension of experience
•eduction of relations (ability to see links)
•eduction of correlates (ability to apply rules)
oA specific factor (s) —unique to each test
oHow to Identify General Intellectual Abilities:
•One way is to correlate intelligence tests; if correlation is
1, then we can conclude on general ability when doing
tests. This is only useful if you are comparing two tests.
What about more than two tests? Spearman developed
the factor analysis: a statistical procedure for data
•Cattell’s Two Factor Theory
oFluid intelligence (gf): The person’s native intellectual ability; his
or her potential to learn and solve problems, as defined by
performance on relatively culture-free tasks (ex. memory span,
pattern recognition). This intelligence matures from childhood to
adolescence but declines as you age further.
oCrystallized intelligence (gc): What the person has learned or
accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence; the
information acquired from one’s culture (ex. vocabulary, general
•Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
oAnalytical Intelligence: The ability to plan and execute tasks
oCreative Intelligence: The ability to cope with new problems
effectively (and to routinize familiar problems)
oPractical Intelligence: The ability to adapt to, select, or shape
the environment (due to evolutionary experiences).
•Sternberg’s Idea of a successful person is someone who can analyze
and understand his/her strengths and weaknesses and is able to
maximize on the strengths while minimizing the weaknesses.
•Gardner’s “Multiple Intelligences”
oThree Fundamental Principles:
•The mind consists of multiple intelligences
•Each intelligence is independent
oTwo Strong Claims:
•All humans possess all intelligences
•Each human has a unique profile of intelligences
•Gardner rejects the idea of a single intelligence and rather insists that
people have multiple intelligences/abilities.
•Intelligent Tests: developed in France in attempt to discover the retards and
help them learn.