THE COGNITIVE PARADIGM:
cognition: groups together the mental processes of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging and
cognitive paradigm: focuses on how people and animals structure their experiences, how they make sense of
them, and how they relate their current experiences to past ones that have been stored in memory.
THE BASICS OF COGNITIVE THEORY:
cognitive psychologists regard the learner as an active interpreter of a situation, with the learner’s past
knowledge imposing a perceptual funnel on the experience.
The learner fits new information into an organized network of already accumulated knowledge often referred
to as a schema, or cognitive set.
Cognitive explanations appear more and more in the search for the causes of abnormality and for new
methods of intervention.
Places the blame on a particular cognitive set.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY:
cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT): a blend of the cognitive and learning paradigms.
• Pay attention to private events – thoughts, perceptions, judgements, self-statements, and
even thoughts, perceptions, judgements, self-statements and even tacit (unconscious)
assumptions – and have studied and manipulated these processes in their attempts to
understand and modify over and covert disturbed behaviour.
cognitive restructuring: is a general term for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing a
disturbed emotion or behaviour.
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy:
developed a cognitive therapy for depression based on the idea that a depressed mood is caused by
distortions in the way people perceive life experiences.
tries to persuade patients to change their opinions of themselves and the way in which they interpret life
events. When a depressed person expresses feelings that nothing ever goes right, for example, the therapist
Ellis’ rational-emotive behaviour therapy:
principal thesis was that sustained emotional reactions are caused by internal sentences that people repeat to
themselves, and these self-statements reflect sometimes unspoken assumptions – irrational beliefs – about what
is necessary to lead a meaningful life. In Ellis’ rational-emotive therapy.
The aim is to eliminate self-defeating beliefs through a rational examination of them.
These interpretations can cause emotional turmoil, and that’s a therapist’s attention should be focused on
these beliefs rather than on historical causes or, on overt behaviour.
More recently, Ellis shifted from a cataloguing of specific beliefs to the more general concept of demanding-