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PSYC 690J3 (29)
Juan Wang (29)
Lecture 13

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PSYC 690J3
Juan Wang

LEARNING PARADIGMS: Psychologists operating in the learning (behavioural) paradigm view abnormal behaviour as responses learned in the same ways other human behaviour is learned. the goal of psychology was to learn more about what went on in the mind by analysing its elementary constituents through introspection. THE RISE OF BEHAVIOURISM: John B. Watson replaced introspection, investigations on learning in animals became the dominant focus of psychology which switched from thinking to learning. behaviourism can be defined as an approach that focuses on observable behaviour rather than on consciousness. Three types of learning: • Classical conditioning: o (Pavlov), unconditioned stimulus; a stimulus elicits a response with no prior learning. o Unconditioned response: the response elicited by an unconditioned stimuli. o Conditioned stimuli: the conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. o Conditioned response: the conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. o Extinction: refers to the lowering of the probability of a response when a characteristic reinforcing stimulus is no longer presented.  Classical conditioning could instil pathological fear. • Operant Conditioning: o (Thorndike), law of effect: behaviour that is followed by satisfying consequences will be repeated and behaviour that is followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged (first called instrumental learning) o Skinner introduced operant conditioning, applied to behaviour that operates on the environment. He reformulated the law of effect by shifting the focus from the linking of stimuli and responses (S-R connections) to the relationships between responses and their consequences or contingencies. o Stimuli do not so much get connected to responses as they become the occasions for responses to occur, if in the past they have been reinforced. o Discriminative stimulus: external events that in effect tell an organism that if it performs a certain behaviour a certain consequence will follow. o Renaming the law of effect “principle of reinforcement”, skinner distinguished 2 types of reinforcement:  Positive reinforcement: refers to the strengthening of a tendency to respond by virtue of the presentation of a pleasant event, called a positive reinforcer.  Negative reinforcement: also strengthens a response, but it does so via the removal of an aversive agent, such as the cessation of electric shock, called negative reinforcers. o Shaping: rewarding a series of responses that are successive approximations of the desired response. • Modelling: o Learning by watching and imitating others. MEDIATIONAL LEARNING PARADIGMS: Mediational theory of learning: holds that an environmental stimulus does not initiate an overt response directly, rather it does so through some intervening process, or mediator, such as fear or thinking. The mediator is conceptualized as an internal respon
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