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Lecture 9

PSYT 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Nicotine, Neuroscience, Sensation Seeking


Department
Psychiatry
Course Code
PSYT 301
Professor
Kathryn Gill
Lecture
9

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Lecture 9: development of smoking, pharmacological effects of tobacco; neurobiology of
nicotine
- nicotine has a high capture rate (the people that stick with it once they try it for the
first time -- who gets addicted)
- public health cost vs. economic benefits (alcohol and tobacco as legalized and taxed
commodities)
- heads of companies knew from the beginning that cigarettes might have caused
cancer, launched a nationwide campaign saying that they are not a danger to public
health
- tried to cover up the health effects
- ammonia in Marlboros increase the bioavailability of nicotine (absorption)
- tobacco companies paid scientists/researchers to write reports that were full
of evidence claiming that nicotine and tobacco isn’t addictive
- 206 billion was paid out in the States
- flavoured products aimed at adolescents and young adults, 50% of adolescent
smokers used flavoured tobacco
- 100 canadians die each day due to smoking related issues, 3 from second hand
smoke
- 20% of adolescent smokers develop tobacco dependence, some studies suggest ⅓
to ½
- initiation influenced by family, peer group, availability (advertising, age restrictions,
sites of purchase)
- however results are variable and inconsistent (def. of regular smoking?)
- early studies found that it takes 2-3 years to progress from experimentation to daily
use, newer studies suggest it can take a few months
- factors predicting transition from initiation to dependence include: degree of
psychological reinforcement from smoking, negative affect, low self-esteem, high risk
taking behaviour and sensation seeking, genetic vulnerability
- HONC: measured craving and withdrawal symptoms
- diminished autonomy over smoking (1+ score on any of the 10 symptoms of
HONC)
- was reported in 4% of the subjects within 1 month of their first
cigarette
- monthly smoking preceded the first HONC symptom, and strong desire and
withdrawal symptoms typically preceded the onset of smoking
- feeling addicted and difficulty in controlled tobacco use tended to appear at
approximately the same time as one another and after the onset of daily
smoking
- strong desire was 1st symptom, withdrawal was 2nd
- conclusion: symptoms of nicotine dependence occur soon after smoking
initiation, early symptoms of dependence typically precede the onset of daily
smoking
- smoking initiation triggers development of early symptoms of
dependence, which in turn promotes smoking escalation
- early dependence symptoms are not recognized as addiction
- similar study classified smokers into 4 classes: (henningfield)
- class 1: non smokers/low smoking rate
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