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Lecture 12

PSYT 301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Vin Mariani, Erythroxylum Coca, Crack Cocaine


Department
Psychiatry
Course Code
PSYT 301
Professor
Kathryn Gill
Lecture
12

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Stimulants:
- tremendous worldwide need for stimulants, every culture/continent
Cocaine: Historical issues
- various stimulants are used worldwide: coffee, betel, khat, absinthe are all well-
known commodities
- Ephedra was used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries, it contains ephedrine
which is used to treat asthma
- cocaine is extracted from the leaf of erythroxylum coca, a bush that grows primarily
at high altitudes in Peru, Bolivia, Columber and Ecuador
- leaves contain approximately 1% cocaine, it was used extensively by Peruvians prior
to colonization by Spaniards
- cocaine is an alkaloid that can be liberated from the leaves by mastication (with
lime/ash)
- effects were documented by Spanish soldiers and explorers, reported to increase
endurance and the tendency for the local natives to binge on coca leaves
- extracted and identified by a German chemist in 1860
- in the 1880’s, there was extensive experimentation by American physicians and drug
companies, cocaine was used in numerous tonics and patent medicines (Birney’s
Bitters [4% cocaine], Vin Mariani)
- Vin Mariani (cocaine wine) was most widely used cocaine product, tons of famous
people used it, Coca Cola was created to compete with Vin Mariani
- Coke had 60mg of cocaine/8oz, US doctors thought it might be an antidote to
alcohol and opiate addiction because it produced effects opposite to CNS
depressions
- cocaine was seen as a major medicinal product, said it treated many to all
ailments
- problems with cocaine intoxication and abuse started to increase at the turn of the
last century as the route of administration changed from oral to intranasal and
injected forms of cocaine
- use in tonics and meds increased until 1911, as it got scheduled due to the Montreal
Epidemic, there was almost a complete decline in use until the 1970’s, waves of use
and suppression
Cocaine vs Crack
- cocaine hydrochloride cannot be burned, and therefore crack was created so that
people could free-base (add a base to the cocaine, baking soda)
Case Presentation: 35 years old, was referred though a court order, living at home with
parents, single, alcohol and cocaine, simple assault after he assaulted his parents, multiple
convictions
- no desire to actually be there,
- What are the major features of drug use?
- alcoholism, cocaine, 10+ drinks spaced out over a day, ¾ grams over the
course of the day
- first drug use was pot at age 16, more likely to drink on weekends, pot and
alcohol was added, more and more was used, including other drugs, he tried
every drug he could do while on a hitchhiking trip after dropping out of school
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