Glossolalia- Speaking in strange tongues, which is a principal feature of charismatic behavior.
- Springing from the revivalist roots of Methodism. An emphasis on feeling intensely the
achievement or the gift of holiness, these congregations are often referred to as ‘Holiness’
churches. (Church of Nazarene and the Church of God)
- Holiness can bring striking changes in observable behavior. Some roll in the aisles of these
meetings (holy rollers) and some speak out ecstatically in an exotic prayer language one has not
previously known. This unknown speech is termed Glossolalia or speaking in tongues.
- The group interprets such conduct as prompted by the Holy Spirit.
- The term ‘charismatic’, from the Greek word for gift, describes such groups.
- Protestant congregations that cultivate the practice of speaking in tongues are also termed
Pentecostal, recalling the early Church’s Pentecost experience.
- Unlike today’s Pentecostal movement, Acts reports speech in exotic tongues that is intelligible
rather than mystifying.
Transubstantiation- The Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are at the
moment of consecration in the service miraculously transformed into the body and blood of
Christ. (ON THE FINAL EXAM)
- Trent reiterated an understanding of the mass as a sacrifice. Theology held that in the re-
enactment of Jesus’ supper with his disciples, the words ‘this is my body’ and ‘this is my blood’
are literally and mysteriously effective. That is, at a certain moment during the service of mass,
the wafer and the wine are transformed into the body and the blood of Christ.
- Is one of the Church‟s major sacraments
- considered to be a commemoration of the Last Supper, the final meal
that Jesus Christ shared with his disciples before his arrest and eventual crucifixion
- The Last Supper appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke
- Eucharist in the Catholic Church refers to both the celebration of the Mass, that is, the
Eucharistic liturgy, and the consecrated bread and wine which according to the faith
become the body and blood of Christ.
- Spiritual communion with Christ through the consumption of His Holy Body and Blood
An ancient doctrinal formulation longer and more explicit than the Apostle‟s Creed
-is the creed or profession of faith that is most widely used in Christian liturgy
- it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the first ecumenical council, which met there in
325. - The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the divinity of Jesus, applying to him the
term "God". The 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as worshipped and glorified with the
Father and the Son
- It is still in use through regular recitation in the Catholic mass. ZOOM in using the bar on bottom right of MSword ISLAM KEY TERMS
Dhikr- „Remembering‟ God‟s name. In group devotional exercises, Sufi‟s repeat it in rhythmic
chant. The devotees often dance in a circle.
- the most characteristic Sufi practice.
- The ritual may be public or private.
- The congregational dhikr ritual is usually held before the dawn or evening prayers.
- It consists of the repetition of the name of God (Allah) or the Shahadah (there is no god, except
- It is often accompanied by special bodily movement and in some Sufi orders, by elaborate
- The performance often distinguishes the various Sufi orders from one another.
- Some intended to stir the devotee into a state of frenzy and some is silent offered an inward
prayer of heart.
- Progression from audible remembrance of the tongue to the silent remembrance of the heart
and finally to the recollection of the innermost being of the pious Sufi.
It is a text containing traditional reports of Mohammed‟s words and example, taken by Muslims
as a foundation for conduct and doctrine. Hadif is an individual unit of literature and is
considered as a corpus. It was not codified until the 10th century after Muhammad‟s death for
the Sunni community and 11th for the Shia‟. It is the most important of the three elements of
sunna because it most directly expresses the prophets opinions or judgements regarding the
communities practice. The Prophets saying and his example must also go back to an eyewitness
or it is not valid. It is equivalent to the Oral Torah in Judaism.
- It is often called ‘tradition’ in English, in a quite specific sense.
- Islamic ‘tradition’ (Prophetic Tradition) is the body of sayings traced to the prophet
Muhammad through chains of oral transmissions.
- It is the most important of the three elements of sunnah, (sunnah of action, sunnah of consent
and sunnah of speech) because it directly expresses the Prophet’s opinions or judgements
regarding the community’s practice. It has also played an important role in development of
- As a source of law the Prophetic hadith tradtion in Islam is in some ways parallel to the Oral
Torah in Judaism. The hadiths are believed to be divinely inspired.
- A hadith consist of a chain of transmission (isnad) beginning with the compiler or last
transmitter and going back to the Prophet, followed by the text (matn).
- The aim of the study of hadith is to ascertain the authenticity of a hadith by establishing the
completeness of the chain of its transmission and veracity of its transmitters. Hajj
The fifth pillar of Islam and is the largest annual pilgrimage in the World that takes place in
Mecca. It must be carried out by every able bodied Muslim once in a lifetime. It is considered as
a form of resurrection or rebirth as you return free from all sins. The first pilgrimage was
performed by Abraham and Ishmael. Before Muhammad‟s death, he went on a pilgrimage and
today people use that as an example of how to perform the rituals. These rituals include, walking
around the Kabah counter clockwise seven times, kissing the black stone, running back and forth
between two hills, Al-Safa and Al-Marwa, drinking from the Zamzam well, then go to mount
Arafat to stand in vigil and throw stones at a ritual called stoning the devil. The pilgrims then
shave their heads and perform animal sacrifice and celebrate in a 3 day festival called Eid-al
Adha. Hajj is considered as a way to bring Muslims together and show their devotion to God.
The Hajj is regarded by Muslims as a form of resurrection or rebirth. Tradition asserts that a
person coming back from Hajj is free from all sins, as on the day when he or she was born.
Moreover, a person is marked with a title Hajji at the beginning of their name
The direction of Mecca, faced in prayer marked in a Mosque by a niche. It was changed from
Jerusalem to the Kabah in Mecca during the Prophets migration to Madinah. After death,
Muslims are buried with their faces in the direction of the qiblah
The first pillar of Islam. It is a law that has two declarations. The first confirming ones devotion
to God and a universal primordial state of faith in which everyone is born with. The second
declaration signifies a persons acceptance of the truth of Mohammed message. It is the Islamic
identity, that shows a Muslim‟s commitment to live by this law that was believed Mohammad
brought from God. It is a person‟s right as part of the Muslim community and without the inner
dimension of the Shahadah Islam looses it meaning as a faith tradition.
Declaring one‟s faith, „bearing witness‟ as a Muslim. The brief declaration formula is a twofold
profession of faith: in God as the only God, and Muhammad as God‟s prophet.
- As the first pillar of Islam, Shahadah ( I bear witness that there is no god expect God, and I
bear witness that Muhammad is the messenger of God’.
- It consists of two declarations. The first, affirming the oneness of God, expresses the universal
and primordial state of faith in which every child is born.
- The second declaration, affirming the apostleship of Muhammad, signifies a persons
acceptance of the truth of Muhammad’s claim to prophet hood, and hence the truth of his message. It is the assertion of a person’s Islamic identity and his or her commitment to live by
the law (shari’ah) that Muslims believe Muhammad brought from God.
- Outwardly: the shahadah legally safeguards a person’s rights as a member of the Muslim
- Inwardly: it is meaningless unless it becomes a true expression of personal faith and righteous
living. Without this inner dimension of the shahdah, Islam loses its meaning as a faith tradition.
The aggregate „life example‟ of Muhammad‟s word and deed, constituting for Muslims a guide
to proper conduct. The Hadith literature is the principle source for its details.
- The Prophet’s legacy was the broad source for a sacred law, in the Qu’ran and his own life
- The Prophet’s sunnah includes his actions and his tacit consent. His acts are repoted in
anecdotes of situations or evens to which he reacted or in which he participated.
- There are three types of sunnah: Sunnah of action, Sunnah of consent and Sunnah of speech
also known as the Hadith.
- The aggregate ‘life example’ of Muhammad’s word and deed, constituting for Muslims a guide
to proper conduct.
- Muslims from all sects believe in the centrality of the Qur’an and sunnah as the primary
sources of Islamic law. However, for the Shi’i Muslims the sunnah extends over a period of three
centuries beginning from the Prophet and till the end of the lesser occultation of the 12 Imam in
Sunnis- One of the two main divisions of Muslims; they trace succession to the Prophet‟s
authority through the institution of the caliphate, which lasted until the twentieth century. Today
they constitute about five-sixths of all Muslims.
One of the two main divisions of Muslims; they trace succession to the Prophet‟s authority
through the institution of the caliphate, which lasted until the twentieth century. Today they
constitute about five-sixths of all Muslims
- Sunni Islam has its name from its identification with the importance of the Sunna (the
examples from the hadiths), which earlier than in Shi'i Islam was established as a central element
in Islam, and central to understanding the full truth in the religion. There was a need to
establishing a law, called Shari'a (for which the hadiths served as a central source) Shi’is- One of the two main divisions of Muslims who trace succession to the Prophet‟s
authority through Imams in the lineage of „Ali. Today they make up about one-sixth of the
- The crisis of authority following the death of the Prophet created a permanent rift in the
Muslim community. This rift began as a political movement or party (shi’ah) upholding Ali’s
right to succeed the Prophet as leader or imam of the community.
- Shi’ism has always signified an absolute devotion to and love for the Prophet’s household
based on a number of Quranic versus.
- The death of the Prophet’s grandson Husayn at Karbala in 680 contrasts sharply with the
otherwise triumphant success story of early Islam. The anniversary date, the Tenth of Muharram,
has come to express Shi’i hopes and frustration, messianic expectations, and a highly
eschatological view of history.
- The sects’ wide diversity consists of the Kaysaniyah sect, The Zaydis, Ismaili, Druzes and the
Twelver (Imami Shi’ism). The later sects of the Shi’i tradition are the Mukhammisah and the
- The Ali spporters included some notable Companions outside the merchant aristocracy of the
Quraysh, many of the Ansar (helpers) of Madina, and the Arab tribes of Kuf