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Religious Studies
RELG 207
Eyad Atallah

Christianity Koine Greek: “Common Greek” Greek language that the New Testament is written in. The New Testament is not written in highly scholastic Greek because the New Testament is written for the common person, so even if everyone can’t read, they can still understand the new testaments when they’re read aloud. Bible (Hebrew Bible, New Testament): What the Hebrews called the Hebrew bible now takes place of the Old Testament. The New Testament has distinct Christian material. Both old and new together comprise the Christian bible. Hebrew Bible was translated into Koine Greek. Septuagint (LXX – “Seventy”): The Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. The Jews forgot Hebrew under Roman and Greek rule so Hebrew Bible was chosen to be translated to Koine Greek. It literally means “seventy” and refers to the 70 Jewish scholars who participated in the translation in different rooms. All translations were identical. It comes into existence a couple of centuries before the birth of Christ. th Vulgate: Happened in the 4 century. Translation of Christian bible (talking old and new testament), now moving from Greek to Latin. Scholar responsible was Jerome. Missionary impulse. Christianity believes in translating the text to gain number of followers. Jesus: Born in 4 B.C.E, He grew up in a town called Nazareth (Northern Israel). Christians understand him to be the promised Messiah. Crucified in 29 C.E. 3 days after he rose from grave demonstrating his power over death, showing he is the messiah (the one god has sent to conquer death, sin, sal the suffering we suffer in this world). Christ/Messiah: “anointed one” Messiah=Hebrew term. Christ=Christian version. Kingdom of God (Mt. Kingdom of Heaven): In the Christian sense, the Kingdom of God still retains political imagery, but also refers to your heart. It refers to how you live with other people and in submission to God himself. Christ embodies the Kingdom of God, and those who follow Christ are also part of the Kingdom. The Kingdom of God is heaven on earth, not a realm beyond this world. Gods rule is re-established by Jesus. There were 4 distinct groups of Jews at that time:- 1) Sadducees: Jewish leaders (political and priests) that decided it was best to cooperate with their Greek rulers. They adopted a number of Greek ways of living (habbits). 2) Pharises: More strict in their application of the jewish laws in the Torah. These would be the orthodox jews. They see the law and uphold it, and in order to be good jews u must follow the law as closely as possible. Therefore orthodox believers followed this Torah and holiness code strictly in their orthodox tempting to reform the jewish ppl. 3) Essenes: small community (separated from jewish society). They held out hope for a messiah type of figure who would come in to this world and lift them out of it. These people are practicing things like denial of bodily needs and desires, thus sexuality not practiced, they might have engages in fasting, beating their bodies in order to purify their mind. devoted themselves to the lives of disciplined piety. known for the Dead Sea scrolls. 4) Zealots: similar to Pharisees in that they want to reestablish the jewish law for the norm of how jews should live their lives. But They are going to take up arms (forming small military bands) to attack the roman authorities at the time. The pharises were willing to work with their roman masters, the zealots were not. They objected the greek and roman rule and wanted a large scale rebellion. Gospel: “Good news” They are the first four books (matthew, mark, luke, and john) of the New Testament and discuss the good news of the coming of the Messiah. Messianic secret: Subversion of the Jewish philosophy of a messiah. The Jewish expectation of a messiah was someone that would bring the Promised Land back under the Jewish rule. However, when Christians say that Jesus was a messiah, they mean it in a different sense. They do not mean that he is a political conqueror, but rather he is a figure that demonstrates a new way of life. The Christian expectation of a messiah is someone that will go to the cross and die versus the Jewish messiah that will lead the people back to the Promised Land. Christ was a “spiritual Messiah” not a political one. The romans stay in power and he focuses on transformation of the heart and living right. This was exemplified in his death. Sin: “Miss the mark” in the sense that you are disconnected or estranged from God. Order of books:- 1) Gospel 2) Book of acts 3) Pauline Epistles (letters) 4) other epistles 5) revelation Synoptic Gospels: (Matthew, Mark, Luke): Synoptic means “similar Outlook” or “on sight”. They are called synoptic because they narrate what Christ did. Meaning these are narrative tellings of the life of Christ. First 3 gospels. Gospel of John: made around the beginning of 2 century CE. It is the youngest and 4 th gospel. Not synopticstMain concern is the relationship between Jesus and god the father. Described in the 1 chapter of John called the Prologue. He outlines his conception of the relationship between Jesus and his father. It contains explicit theoretical reflection. The Incarnation: it is literally god becoming a person. Becoming the male gender and entering the world as not having the ability to sin but is fully a person but also fully divine. Beginning to end of this life is incarnation. God has taken the human form. The atonement: It is the reconciliation of the humanity and individual human being with god. It is the repair of the break that happened between adam and eve. The genesis is put back together in the atonement. It is based on the death of Christ on the cross. Christ “atones” for what regular humans cannot atone for. He takes on our sins for us and his death had a purpose. He lives his life perfectly in alignment with God’s. The resurrection: 3 days after death of jesus, he rose from the dead. This is the defeat of the death that adam and eve were punished with for disobeying gods creation. There is concept of eternal life after death in Christianity. With Christ’s resurrection, we see hope that there is a possibility of a better life after death. Christ conquered death. The above three things is the trio in Christianity. The book of acts: follows the gospels in standard order of the new testament. Volume 1 volume 2. It is the history of the very first followers of jesus. Ascension of jesus, the pentacost, the Conversion of Paul and establishment of communities of jesus believers around the Mediterranean. Stories mainly about Paul and Peter. Ascension: return of jesus to father after 40 days. After jesus rose from dead, he spent time with followers in and around Jerusalem. While he is not in a human body, he was still there according to Christianity. Pentecost: apostles and disciples of jesus received the gift of the holy spirit upon them. Its like a flame on top of the head. Experience in which the followers are urged to go out on the streets and preach about jesus and the disciples speak in tongue. Speak in languages they don’t know. Whoever they meet, they talk in the RECIPIENTS native tongue. The church develops from this. rd Holy Spirit: 3 person of the acts. Gospels promise that after he dies, paraclete(advocate) would come and enlighten and tell his followers to preach. It is whats present even today in churches and prays when people pray. Within Christian doctrine, we have God who is both one and three at the same time: God the father, God the son (who incarnated himself as Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit. However, it is still referring to monotheism. Saul/Paul: the story is in book of acts. He was a jewish man spoke greek and lived in greek culture. Born in tarsus, turkey. Educated by famous rabi “Gamaliel” who is also mentioned in “acts” and also in history. Saul originally persecuted Christians in Damascus when he was told to stop. He converted in Damascus. He got message from god. He was involved in physical attacks against jesus’ followers. Pharisee originally. Pauline epistles or letters: Paul wrote these on travel to follower countries in the Mediterranean. They were written for the churches and one for the Romans. In the New Testament. Imago Dei: the same term from Judaism. Latin translation of “Image of God”. Makes the human being unique, differentiates from animals. Peter: Was one jesus’ disciples and was considered a rock (Hebrew: Kephas, Greek: rock). Jesus made him leader of the early community. Leader of the 12 apostles. He is important in book of acts as leader of church in Jerusalem, he had discussion with Paul if followers of jesus should or shouldn’t follow all laws that jews do. He was crucified in Rome. Pope sits on his throne today. The Trinity: Father, Son and the Holy Spirit as one god. They consider Christianity as a monotheistic religion of these 3 deities. They believe in one god but the trinity combines these three attributes of god as a whole. Fish (Ichthus): fish like shape means Jesus Christ is son of god and savior. In the Roman Empire, the Christians were under heavy suspicion and persecution, so they identified themselves with a fish symbol to be more discreet. Liturgy: the work of the people which is organized Christian worship although others use it too. Differs from church to church but there is a discernible pattern the service follows. Literally means “the work of the people” - going to worship means going to do the work of worship. The series of steps of the ritual in the church. Ecclesia: Christian assembly (people who form the church) replacing older Roman assemblies. Constantine: A Roman emperor who received a sign that he would win a battle if he painted the shields with Christith symbols and believe in Christ. He converted from roman empire to Christianity in the 4 century and won the battle. He issues the Edict of Milan. Edict of Milan: Christianity was tolerated in roman empire. Legal recognition
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