Islam: means peace or surrender. It means the peace that comes when one surrenders life to
Allah: simply means the God.
Quran: it literally translates to recitation. To recite. Mohammad believes to have received the
Quran from God. Gods mouthpiece. It took 23 years to collect.
1) Surah: roughly equivalent to “chapter”. 114 surahs in the quran.
2) Aya: “verse”.
3) Al-Fatiha: the first surah in the Quran. Shortest one. “In the name of God, the all
merciful, the compassionate”. Recited before each prayer.
Abraham: “Beginning” or “opening”The patriarch common to Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Abraham was the first muslim. Abraham marries Sarah. She doesn’t have a son. So she gives
Abraham her maid servant Hagar and has a son Ishmael. After that, Sarah becomes pregnant
and gives birth to Ishaq. Jews from Ishaq and muslims from Ishmael. Ishmael is sent off to the
desert. He goes to where Mecca today stands.
Ishmael: Abrahams son from his servant Hagar and Ishaqs brother. Ishmael is sent off to the
desert to present day Kabba. Muslims descend from his.
Nabi: “prophet” one who speaks for God.
Rasul: special prophet. “messenger”. Brings Gods word. Many different Rasuls.
1) Moses: brings the Torah (first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible).
2) Jesus: brings the Gospels (first 4 gospels in the New Testament.
3) Mohammad: “seal of the prophets”. Claims to be the final prophet. Mohammad is born
around 570AD. Father dies a few days before his birth and mother dies before he is 6.
His grandfather and uncle took care of him. Mohammad is human. Uniqueness is that he
is the instrument through which God has spoken. He is not son of God, just voice of
God. He received the first revelation in 610AD (40 years of age). Gods revelation is
People of the book: People possessing early version of the book by God. Jews and Christians.
Expands maybe to all people possessing divine books.
Mecca: City of Mohammads birth. 70 km from the Persian gulf. Uniqueness is not its location
but that there is a place of pilgrimage, the KAABA. It was built by Abraham. Ruling power was
with the Quraishi tribe. Violence free zone. Quraish guarantee your safety in Mecca. As a
merchant travelling across Arabia, it’s a violence free zone protecting economic assets.
1) Kaaba: it was built by Abraham and is in Mecca. Mecca was known not for its location
but its holding of the place of pilgrimage. 2) Quraysh Tribe: Ruling power in Mecca was with the Quraishi tribe. They guaranteed
personal safety as well as the safety of economic assets at the time
Jahilya: time of ignorance. Before Muhammad received revelation, people there were jews or
Christians and were pagans (worshippers of many gods) ignorance of one true god.
1) Jinns: During jahilya, as u leave the city, there are spirits called jinns. They can be
called. If you don’t like someone, jinns can be called for help.
2) Hanifs: these are pure monotheists. Like Cs and Js but don’t accept all of their
3) Kahim: poets. If you want to talk to god like how business transaction would go or what
marriage will be like, you will go to these poets and pay a little money and they would
give back gods message in poems. Vague answers.
Khadija: the woman who became Muhammads first wife. She was a widow who ran a merchant
business. Women in Arabia didn’t achieve that much power as she did. She employed
Muhammad as her representative. Muhammad did very well here and proved to be a very fair
businessman. Khadija offers her a marriage proposal. She was 40 and Muhammad was 25. She
was the first convert to Islam. Intimate relationship. He will share all experiences. Strong bond.
Mount Hira: in outskirts of Mecca. Muhammad was disappointed by people of Arabia. On this
mountain, during one of his month long contemplations, was when he received first message of
God. Intermediary was angel Jibrael. Delivers word of God to him. First word is “recite” he did
not understand the first couple of times.
1) Night of power: first night that Muhammad received revelation. Significant event.
Yathrib/Medina: Muhammads situation after his uncle died in Mecca became unstable.
Quraishis disliked him for what he preached. He saw risk of his life. He sent out discrete
inquiries to other cities. One was sent to Medina 250 km from Mecca where jews and pagans
were living. Yathrib invited Muhammad to come.
1) Hijra: Emmigration. Muslim community migrated to yathrib which was renamed Medina
later. Medina means “the city”. It was in Medina where muslim community was first
established. Hijra happened in 622 AD.
Battle of Bader (624): 2 years later. Though Muhammad and small community were ok, they
did not have a livelihood. Muhammad started attacking caravans from and to Mecca. Meccans
put a plot and put 1000 troops for fight. Odds were 3:1 and Abu Bakr advised him to go and
fight. Muhammad earns new amount of respect, now he is war chief.
Batle of Uhad (625): between meccans and muslims. Muslims were defeated. Many muslims
died. At this battle, the men remaining were allowed to marry upto four wives because of the
Battle of Trench (627): Meccans came with 1000 men to Medina. Muhammad directed his
people to dig a trench around medina which nutrilized the meccan cavalry. Muslims fought from
within the trench Treaty of Hudaiybiyyah (628): Mohammad and a number of his followers went to Mecca but
were stopped by the meccans. Muhammad and his companions acted in a non violent manner
so the meccans agreed to a treaty of peace.
Conquest of Mecca (630): Muhammad came to mecca with 10,000 men and the citizens
welcomed him into the city. One of the most significant actions performed by Muhammad was
that he took the idols out of Kaaba and dedicated what the Kabbah is. Muhammad takes control
Plain of Arafat: is where all humans will be gathered by Allah for judgment in day of hereafter.