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Lecture 8

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Religious Studies
RELG 253
Victor S?gen Hori

Daoism Introduction No idea when Lao was born But around Confucius Text tradition/founders Lao Tzu (Laozi) No idea what he looked like Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) The definition and description of Daoism in Western textbooks doesn't actually exist in China Chinese conception Lots of temples that have ghosts and spirits Other worlds (like Heaven and Hell) Rituals Shamanistic visitations Philosophical Daoism and Religious Daoism PD: Tao chia RD: Tao chiao Lao Tzu Means aged teacher No biography, no information about the person May be a single or many people Shih Chi 63 cites and 3 legends in which Lao Tzu appears First history of China Legend that Lao Tzu left the western pass on a water buffalo The pass leads for India or the Mediterranean Claim that he left China, went thru the western pass to India, and became the buddha Legend Mother was pregnant for 72 years Then he was born from his mother's right side Influence of Buddhism (part of the legend of Buddha's birth too) Born as an aged man Live several hundreds years Never dies When he went through the pass, the gate keeper made him write down his teachings Belief in immortality Through yoga, alchemy, good nutrition The Text "5000 characters" More than that 81 short chapters No proper names of people or places Mixed rhyme and prose Repeated or similar passages Called Tao Te Ching First half starts with Tao (the way) et second is with Te (virtue) Ching = the sutra Tombs Mawangdui's tomb 163 BCE Silk texts of the Tao Te Ching The two halves were reversed The Tao The Way Metaphysical reality Chapter 1: Nameless Tao called Tao is not Tao Talking about the Tao, describe the pristine of the Tao Names can name no lasting name Nameless: the origin of heaven and the earth Naming: the mother of the 10,000 things Chapter 56 Those who know don't talk, those who talk don't know Unity of Opposites Ch.2 recognizes beauty and ugliness is born Idea of yin and yang Opposites are human constructions But the opposite is the same What's someone misfortune can be interpreted as fortune by someone else FIVE Too much is not better Must focus on one sense at a time Heaven Heaven hates what it hates - who knows why Not necessarily nice to people In Confucianism, Heaven is kind to men Punishes people that are mean to other men In Daoism, Heaven and Earth are not kind Once the use of human is over, they're just thrown in fire Before Heaven and Earth, there was the Dao Do not contend "Combattre" "Lutter" "Best to be like water" You shouldn't try to be better than everyone else e.g. Martial arts --> you do not try to be stronger than your opponent; you use the other person's strength against him Non-action Wu wei The sage is devoted to non-action The sage does without trying Natural Tzu jan Tao follows its own nature Training to be natural Things get in the way Preferences, attachments, biases, etc e.g. If you have flowers in your house, you shouldn't plant them in a row and all straight; you should place them s
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