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RELG 253 (161)
Lecture 5

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Department
Religious Studies
Course
RELG 253
Professor
Victor S?gen Hori
Semester
Winter

Description
Confucianism Historical Background 3 dynasties Xia Shang Zhou Introduction to Confucius 551-479 BCE Confucius's life Constant war, breakdown of feudal order Generals would tell their soldiers to charge, but the "soldiers" would just drop their weapons and run away No conception of loyalty to an emperor/king/sovereign Weakening of class structure and rise of specialist (shi) Prowess on the battle field is very important Social status doesn't matter at that point If you're knowledge is useful for the ruler and gives him advantages against his enemy, then you can go up social classes Advance in military technology Long spear with a knife blade at a 90 degree angle at the end Chariots To put ladders against walls of cities Rams The Hundred Schools e.g. Legalism Confucianism Mohism Taoism Yin-yang School Term applied later in history Confucius Qiu Kong Fuzi Qiu = first name as a child Kong = family name Fuzi = teacher His name was latinized by jesuits Born in state of Lu Today, his home is a tourist site Descendent of royal house of Sung (Zhou) Sung was a state Said to have been a father orphan Married at 19, Keeper of Grains aka, supervisor of the chief house Not certain what official post he had Because of his duties, it is said he had to execute a person Teacher of ru, Study of Zhou text and ritual His teaching of Confucianism was hidden by his teaching of ru Travels for 13 years with disciples Returned to Lu at age 68 Also death of son and of two disciples Death in 479 BCE Images of Confucius The Rational Humanist No theology in his teachings Ideal religion for critiques of Christianism 1970's Symbol of everything that was old Marxist revolution was dedicated to stating out the old; enemy of Chinese culture Represented everything that was wrong about China Confucian Analects Words of Confucius as remembered by his disciples Several authors Cannot identify who they are Explains the fragmented nature of the book Sort of biased The disciples of the disciples wrote versions too They would put more emphasis on their teacher, more than on the other disciples Concepts Ren aka Goodness, human-heartedness, humanity, benevolence, love Human nature is social, not individual The pictogram is a mix of the pictogram for "human" and "social" Human nature is defined in moral terms Though innate, it still has to be cultivated Moral quality Ren and Li Li is rituals and ceremonies You can become Ren only by completing Li Wide senses of rituals Many daily activities too e.g. Saying hello to people in the morning at work; different ways of doing so in different countries Dao/Tao Found in various schools of thoughts in China Different interpretations in each though Dao Means, road/path/way Fundamental principles Ideal social order Confucianism Metaphysical reality Daoism De/Te Means virtue, but also power/manliness "The Virtue of the gentleman is like the wind, and the Virtue of a petty person is like the grass – when the wind moves over the grass, the grass is sure to bend" Government by virtue Opposed to rule The Virtuous person receives the Mandate to rule Yi Rightness 2 theories of human theories Naturally good nature Naturally bad nature Zhenming Rectification of names Speech does not accord with reality e.g. If a ruler doesn't benefit his people, he is not a real ruler; if you call him a ruler, it's a misuse of speech Instead of changing the language to fit the people, we should change the people to fit the language e.g. Don't say a "so-called ruler", replace the person by a real leader Junzi Gentleman Morally acco
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