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Lecture 9

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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 225
Rick Schultz

SOCA01-Lecture 9 Health and Medicine cont’d: Post traumatic stress disorder: -a new mental disorder of recent vintage -cultural context: -public and private organization they find it profitable to come up w/ new mental disorders -pharmaceutical companies can come up w/ drugs to treat these disorders Vietnam: -war vets started returning home in 1971 and had problems adjusting -the war was very unpopular in America -young men and some women in the war -treated as hardly heroes -recession hit at so no jobs for them -by 1974 many were finding the stress too much to take and many began to believe that their problems were psychiatric and that they had a specific disorder -launched a national campaign and directed it at the APA -asked them to make it a mental disorder but eventually APA caved in and mad PTSD a mental disorder -some scattered evidence that it was a disorder but it only became a disorder b/c of the political pressure -if you are injured usually the government will pick up the tab -the Vietnam vets saw that they too could be eligible for compensation from the government -so the APA made it a disorder and they got compensated -example of a mental disorder being delabelled: -self-defeating personality disorder”i’m my own worst enemy” -feminist community objected b/c DSM is twice as common among women as among men -they argued before the APA that this amounted to blaming the victimwomen should not be blamed or saddled w/ this label b/c the real culprit is partriarchy which makes women feel inferior -the 1994 edition diagnostic and statistical manual dropped self-defeating personality disorder -thus see how politics played a key role -leads us to the conclusion that culture (sociological concept) plays a big role in deermining whether or not you are healthy or not healthy -mental disorders are shaped by thing other than scientific evidence -social values, political forces, professional interests, corporations and their interests -psychiatric labelling -no clear dividing line between mentally health and unhealthy individuals -there’s a sort of continuum -don’t have the tools to measure it -there are a lot of social pressures that get in the mix and they get to decide what and what not is a disorder -culture looms as critical in this process Political sociology of mental illness: -beginning of 20 century, there is one mental disorder recognized by feds and courts -can be used in the courts as a mitigating factordon’t bear the full responsibility of your crime -and so the sentence is produced accordingly -first happened in 1860s in common law -man murdered someone as defence claimed him innocent due to a mental disorder -courts went along w/ it -the more mental disorders we have the more people are affected by it -the most common is depression disorder 1of4 Canadian women and 1of10 Canadian men -if you do vigorous cardio this stimulates the production of endorphins -they produce a feeling of well-being -being depressed is part of life and if depression affects you, you should exercise -Canadian mental health association estimates that 1 in 5 Canadians will be affected by a mental disorder sometime in their life -definitions are extended and expanded to include ailments w/ no detectable biological basis like minor depression and borderline schizophrenia -the list keeps getting longer -psychiatrists are currently working on the new DSM (2012) -consider including post traumatic embittermnent disorder -if husband, wife, boyfriend, leaves you and you are bitter/resentful for too long then you’re suffering from some type of disorder -internet addiction disorder -apathy disorder -compulsive buying disorder -compulsive pathological overeating disorder -hoarding disorder Christopher Lane: -book called shyness: how normal behaviour becomes a sickness What’s responsible for this? -corporate interests -in the economic interests of specific corporate groups like pharmaceutical companies -they create new drugs for medical purposes -thus, they have an interest in expanding the list of mental disorders -ex. Prozac the world most widely prescribed anti-depressant -was then repackaged as seraphin and marketed to women suffering from a newly discovered condition called premenstrual disphoric disorder (PDD) Why?  Eli Lily is a huge pharmaceutical company that sold Prozac and Eli Lily made 1/3 of its revenue from Prozac sales (6.5 billion) -if come up w/ new drug you need to patent it, and for a certain period of time you won that product and no one else can sell it and you make the money -eventually they run out and don’t last forever -in 2001, they ran out of patent protection and they did not have an exclusive franchise on it -thus they came up w/ seraphin which is slightly different for this new disorder -thus can see why corporations have an interest in this expansion of labelling Everyone is an expert: -contributes to labelling as well -self-help literature grown rapidly over the years -faced w/ self help experts (on tv or mass media) -experts played a key role in the labelling of attention deficit disorder ADD -needed a drug to treat this disorder which is Ritalin -it was proscribed almost exclusively for hyperactive and inattentive boys in the classroom -it is controversial, by mid 90s doctors were writing 6 billion prescriptions a year for Ritalin -it’s an amphetamine type compound (ex. Speed, meth kind of like it) -children’s and adults with ADD (CHAD) 600 chapters a 30000? members worldwide -who makes it?  -on friendly terms w/ CHAD and has given them a large amount of money over the years -there is some evidence although highly controversial that people w/ ADD have problems absorbing glucose in the brain -some people have found what is vaguely called a chemical balance in the brain that regulates behaviour -if it a disorder or not is disputable -no physical evidence -problem w/ Ritalinwhen people are diagnosed they are not tested for brain chemistry or chemical imbalance, but its clinical and done on the basis of observation of behaviour -what they look for is inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity -these are the traits that all little boys have -clinical diagnosis is not the same as a biological test -this is why Toronto school want to make separate school for hyperactive boys -this means that many get diagnosed for reasons like boredom (sometimes really smart kids get bored) -sometimes can be due to the fact that children like to act out to get attention -sometimes children are just high spirited -thus Ritalin is given for a disorder that might not even exist -educational institutions like Ritalin b/c it gets rid of behaviour problems mainly from boys -achieve social control in the classroom Who likes this? educational institutions, pharmaceutical companies (pseudagyzi?), the people that do the clinical diagnosis -A clockwork orange by Stanford colbrick?: -about the medicalization of deviance -professional organization benefit from psychiatric labelling -increases their power and income -the more patients there are, the more they make -power: -how do you gain power and control of people -scare mongering by WHO and other organization to create fear b/c when you make people frightened, you gain control -if you can frighten people you can obtain power and control over people -culture has moved in this direction more and more over the years -people in the UK put global warming 20 on the list they are concer
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