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Education and Development.rtf

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 254
Uli Locher

Education and development - often, education ministries and development agencies establish goals to be accomplished, but this is the way to disaster -supplied side arguments - ex: we need so many mor kids educated, so we increase supply of teachers, books, etc - usually you end up spending limited resources on things that don't work out - main problems: limited finances, bottlenecks you produce and disorganized way it is set up supplied side arguments: - on an organizational level frequently fail - also fail on substantial level - will usually attempt to do something very modern, like teaching a dialect, but parents don't want that and the schools will be empty because the national language is viewed as more important - give them what they don't want - belief that parents don't know what's good for their kids, bureaucrats do Best practices - what's the best way to attack a problem? - leads to whole libraries of best practices - problem: best practices in a region are not transferable to other regions, not best worldwide - enduring problem: in education, policies are most often ideologically driven; rather than listening to needs, we jump to conclusions quickly because we think we know what's best for societies - ideologies don't have a very long lifespan - problem of imposing our ideologies on other cultures (like girls edu) - if you want to help education in a developing country, you have to put finances where the kids are, and 85% are in private schools (causes much public outcry but is necessary) Does education affect development? - yes, but not if you simply have schools, because this may imply that you're counting schools that are empty, where teachers have no teaching diploma -the performance of educational systems is problematic. Education and Econ growth - education increases human capital - productivity effects: if you have a more skilled labor force, it will perform better - consumption effects: people are more productive, produce more value, leads to higher consumption; multiplier effects - reduced inequality: all the ppl at bottom of ladder are raised up, have more buying power, will participate more in politics, etc - long term structural effects: will bring Lorenz curve flatter, closer to line of eq in a country - indirect effects: reduction in fertility (delays marriage age, age of first child, etc), morbidity and infant mortality Performance of edu system - world wide performance has increased - gross rate: number of kids in school/number of children in country in age group (ex primary school ages 6-11) - counting all kids in school isn't appropriate because some kids we older than the age, because they dropped out before, redone classes, etc. - many enrol because of school feeding program, they were hungry so they enrolled; this is highly unproductive - Haiti: 75% of kids in school are at least 3 years over age - gross rates are revealing in terms of the costs of the system - to know how many kids are in the appropriate grade and age, net rate is needed - why gross rates? Much easier to do, to have good net rates you need reliable census information which is very frequently absent or outdated in poor countries, but useful to talk about cost of system - net rates useful for pedagogical goals and interventions, giving appropriate pedagogical systems to appropriate age groups Leakage in educational system: levels of non salary input - salaries are bing paid to teachers, but everything else to build schools, maintain them, pay for supplies, etc, all of these are financed but the money doesn't arrive to destination (ex Uganda -87% doesn't make it, Ghana 49%, Tanzania 57%) - leakage is important, a lot of money going into education but lots is getting lost due to: Staff related leakages 1) inappropriate assignments: frequent practice expressing urban bias, ex student/teacher ratios four times higher in remote rural areas 2) absenteeism: teachers not showing up or when they show up it is extremely late and don't teach (benefit from feeding program, etc), ex Uganda 27% 3) ghost workers: teachers die and are still on payroll, ex Uganda 20% - problem of promoting good teachers into bureaucrats Private vs social costs and benefits of education - social costs are high (opportunity cost goes up the older the kids are, as the contribution if the child goes up kids age) - always private costs - direct costs vs opportunity cost - social benefits are higher in primary schooling - private benefits are higher in secondary and higher education - elementary school benefits country as a whole - at secondary and higher education, benefit is mostly for you and our family - people with higher education have tendency to migrate Best investment in poor countries producing highest long term return - girls' education based on crude chief economies - why? Video: Dubai cares video by Dubai media - connection bw nutrition and learning capacity - there are good ways and bad ways to incorporate school feeding - why Dubai? Filthy rich Arabs going to Ghana? Social ties, way to defend their name -important to look at wider context in charity - simply feeding kids doesn't work - ways in which feeding can do good: 1) using education as conduit for health intervention - de-worming kids (takes only a few pills) so body can absorb nutrients 2) using local food as oppose to cheap imported food State failure and schooling - state failure is not necessarily permanent, and some parts of state may function while others fail - 1979 school reform in Haiti goals: universal access, free education in public schools, national curriculum for all, including private schools, mother tongue instruction, modernization if system according to best practices learned elsewhere, international financing - kids learn better when, in their first years, they are taught in their mother tongue - cognitive results of reform: overall performance in reform schools was significantly worse than in non reform school, urban students did bet
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