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Urban Development

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 254
Uli Locher

Urban Development Urbanization - City: large, dense, permanent human settlement - Heterogeneous: not e1 same  specialized occupationally, freq ethnic mixes - Urbanization: - 1) % of pop that lives in cities (threshold varies) - 2) process urbanization is taking place (urban % increasing) - Primate city: dominant city, demographic concept - Compared to other cities, 1 is much larger (which other cities, demographers not all agree) - Concentration of econ/poli activity so strong, other small cities no chance catching up - Is it good/bad to have primate city?  More innovation, more econ development  H: spreading all talent, money give e1 more of a chance - Opposite of primate city/primate urban distrib = rank-size distrib - Informal sector - Formal sector: work w/contracts, insured, pension scheme, taxed, “protected sector”  Informal: none of the benefits of formal sector - Process of urbanization - Why do we have cities?  Fulfill s/imp functions: living arrangement in pop that provides surplus (agricul)  Agricul surplus that finances non-agricul activities (poli offices, admin)  Also, animal husbandry  Once have agricul in organised fashion  inequalities  Have cities b/c func for empires as fortifications of outer edges  Market func: if have agricul, have need for markets  Need place where can exchange goods  Symbolic func: poli elites live in cities (have offices, temples, cathedrals)  Poli rep of entire pop demands monumental places - Where do we have cities?  Where empire wants them/where trade favoured (along routes)  For long time in history, reliable routes = rivers  If take funcs as starting point, where expect cities to emerge?  Central place theory (distance + obstacles)  Threshold: min market (pop or income) needed to bring about selling of partic g/s  Range: max distance consumers prep to travel to acquire goods  @s/point cost/inconvenience will outweigh need for good  Deterministic theory, H: does fit s/nats + phases of urbz very well  Useful methodological tools to analyse observation of urbz - City functions shown in case of Penonomé - Low-order central place, agricul region, located close on Inter-American Highway - Admin centre, banks, edu instits, health services - S/urban funcs shown in case of Colón - Mid-order central place - All funcs of low-order central place + instits corresponding to more diversif econ + more sig presence of state  dominant funcs = global (not local or regional) Urban Structure and Habitat - Many urban centres today refl colonial past (true in much of the world) - In s/cases, have Eur pre-indusz cities transplanted other parts of world - What did Eur pre-indusz city look ike? - Centre: concentration of symbolic expressions, urban identity, poli power - Surrounding centre of city: place of commerce, upper class housing - As move out, cheaper, dirtier, less serviced - S/of architecture of preindusz city remained  can find remnants of colonialization in cities - Urban growth throughout world today = fast - Roughly ½ of world that is urban today, still growing - 1 of charac of urbanization up to 80-100 years ago: - For 100s years, connected to indusz - Western cities essentially have grown thanks to econ transformation of indusz th th  Attractive places even though life in 18 /19 cent industrial centres was extremely challenging for urban class (unhealthy living + working condits)  Average migrant fr/countryside to Manchester, less than 10 years died th - Indusz + urban growth very tightly linked up to 20 century  Then, get lot of urban growth happening in 3 world  There, have rapid urban growth diff in 2 ways:  1) No longer necess linked to indusz (urbanization w/out indusz)  2) Rural and city population (not at cost of rural decline), overall pop growth so rapid that even while part of labour force transferred to cities, rural regions nevertheless grow  Typ if look at measurements of 3 world cities, grow b/w 5-10%, countryside 1-2.5% - As cities grow, expansion + relocation of activities - As s/activities move, leave behind structures which don’t serve same purpose anymore - 1 of things emerging: inner-city slum (didn’t have before)  Were poverty areas w/in cities, but Eur/Asian model, cities of past cents didn’t have poverty area right in urban centre  W/decaying indus cities, this is what is happening - Most US cities have inner-city slums b/c of decay manufacturing in recent years - Don’t have much of that in Cda b/c have substant transfer payments  Don’t create slums in way they are created in US - 3 types of urban habitats: - 1) Slums  Recycling old urban area, decaying urban area  Much of construction material = provisional (can transport them away)  Dismantling + reusing of materials + housing units  Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: entire urban area built on (toxic) water (new urban area) - 2) Squatter settlements  Occupy piece of land w/out having right to do so  Have been described + studied esp LatAm  Have to est first their presence  Many instances where ppl who saw an opportunity, got a bit organised s/times w/help of s/leaders, 1 night took over entire area, makes it poli costly to take down this area  Freq, successful in taking over an area  W/tenure security, comes gradual improvement  W/poli representation, certain services take hold (drainage, water, street lights)  Becomes advantageous for politicians to supp squatters - The Favelas of Rio de Janeiro  Rio: spectacular beauty, not necess safety zone (gangs)  High rises + Favela growth, not in most desirable locations, wherever unoccupied land  S/times grow in very dangerous locations  Ambitious projects: lots of favelas doesn’t mean there isn’t lots of $  Characteristics:  Poverty?  No just unemp, impoverished, drug dealers, all kinds human life  Illegal occupancy?  Yes @beg’g, illegality defines it, as tenure sit becomes settled, illegality not prob  Unemp?  Unemp in formal sector, informally many have jobs  Lack of permanence?  Revolutionary potential?  Ppl have academic careers pub books + articles on how exploited masses huddled together so densely will rise + take over (both fr/right + left)  Studies shows that these ppl want 1 thing = job, peaceful life, move ahead in life, want life to be better for children  While s/ppl agitate poli, doesn’t mean these condits create revolutionaries  Weakness of official instits  Alternative structures of organization + control  State strikes backs  Mobilize troops, have reoccurrence of this in Brazil  Armed assault + poli rally  Big clampdown, confiscated bikes of drug dealers  Armed assault vs urban development  Motivation for assault: internat prestige, not social devel  Beneficiaries = state rather than the marginalized favela pop  Sustainability of the control program: dubious b/c of costs + poli motivation  General orientation: top-down for both analysis + solution - 3) Planned housing for poor people - To rich, all poverty settlements look alike (see only ugliness, smell stench, must be horrible) - Ppl living there may not agree w/us - Ppl written a lot about pops trapped in slums + how they devel ‘culture of poverty’ - Shouldn’t presume we haveexploited impov ppl, develculture of poverty +remainthere forever - When do decent studies of these pops, many ppl have only been in slums for few weeks, months, there is constant rotation of slums  Starting improve situation - Ppl = isolated, anomic, nothing working - There are slums of hope, must disting fr/slums of despair - Despair: have victimization of ppl, isolated, exploited, trapped ppl, can’t even mobilize resources necess to move out of slums - In many cases, slums of hope  Pops are in transit, ppl come in fr/countryside go to slums stay with friends  Transit more imp than slums  Ppl have inventiveness  to say that this is unorganized pop trapped in sit = nonsense  W/in condits that define his life, doing rather well Cities without Slums? - Trajectories for urban poverty areas Decaying central area Rebuilding or slum Central city slum Permanent slum or urban renewal Urban squatter area Slum or upgrading Squatter area in close proximity Eviction or upgrading Distant squatter settlement Upgrading Upgraded squatter settlement incorporation - Slum policy: the conventional approach - Make cities slum-free - List + register all slums + slum residents - Upgrade: local govs must provide basic services (these constit ‘a right’) - State plans for future need for land + resources - Consider livelihood security in relocation - Progressive additions to the conventional approach - Justice + equity - Gender equality - Community participation - Enhanced security of tenure - Decentralization - Networking across departments and programs An example using the conventional approach: Malaysia - “Housing for urban squatters resettlement and the low income group” - Objective is to provide adequate + affordable housing for low-income grp + squatters - # of units = 4.2M, squatters est 70,000 fams - Low cost housing programs in Malaysia, 2009 - Private sector low-cost housing - Public housing program for sale - Special low-cost housing program – rent to buy - People housing program for sale + rental - The dream: single family homes - Minimum cost public housing - High-rises instead of slums - Impact of housing program under the Ministry of Housing + Local Gov: positive outcomes - Sig impact on lives of low-income grps + squatters in terms of providing adequate + affordable housing + conducive living environ - W/rending rate or RM124 (USD 35.02), squatter’s living condits have improved - Allows occuptnats to buy over rented units as + when gov offers them for sale - Gov hoped to achieve ‘zero squatters’ policy in cities - Challenges: - Mismatch on location b/w squatters need + completed units - Displaced squatters prefer stay near places of work while it’s diff to find land in city centres - Lim gov funding against demand - Prob to identify right applicants who quality + also happy to stay in complete location - Difficulty to set up Management Corporation
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