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Rural Development

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 254
Uli Locher

Rural Development Peasant Societies - Peasants = agriculturalists (subsistent peasantries exist in past  today, virtually nowhere) - May produce in part for own subsistence, but def by relationships to markets (state + regulations)  very highly stratified usually - Domination of 1 aspect of like (ex: poli) have very far-reaching consequences other domains of life - Resource gained through poli connections transformed into resources that can be exported th - Russian peasants (ea 20 century) - Emancipated fr/earlier serfs, agriculturalists, villages, live under capitalist class of land owners - Revolution changed all that , peasnta = un-free labour, tied to land  Rev: collectivized agricul, create vast class of rural agricul labourers - Iraq peasants (20 century) - Agriculturalists: need land + labour - Not peasants working own plots of land, working irrigated land - Irrigation = vastly increasingly output + stratification  Larger land owners who can produce more w/irrigation, little guys pushed to marginal land - Collaboration going on (work gangs)  Structure of canals req enorm amount labour - Land distrib peasant soc = highly unequal - LatAm: contrast b/w large + small states of individ peasant socs - How get access to land in peasant soc?  Inherit land individually/collectively  Usually, all children of family have equal claim on land  If small peasant farmer has 2 or 3 hectares of land w/5 children  Split land up  units small, not really valuable as production units (econs of scale can’t be realized), split up legally: authorities get papers for/ea/child (tax e1)  Might be in interest of children to work land collectively instead  Buy land: in s/peasant socs, constantly buying/selling small plots of land  If buy piece of land, official transaction + registered  but not what happens in peasant societies, much land sold w/out proper title  Politically collected ppl not going to lose land just b/c don’t have papers  H: if more vulnerable, might happen land taken away  S/cases, doc will establish justice (state should protect ownership)  Haiti: NGOs come in + establish maps of who owns land  Tool for justice? No  put on paper all illegitimate transactions  Rent it fr/state (state very often largest land owner)  Directly/indirectly (sub-letted to peasants)  Long term arrangements: virtually forever vs. short term  Sharecropping  Own land + allow others to work on it  split profits - Issue: control of land + what we do w/land - Irish peasants (19 century) - Absentee landlords switching increasingly to produce beef for urban markets - All best land got into beef production  peasants pushed to marginal lands (potatoes) - Potato disease spread through monoculture @great rapidly  Great Famine followed, 1 million dead, another million = emigrated (25% pop reduction) Rural Life - Peasants for produce for markets b/c want $ - Need $ for inputs + tools, replacement fund, food, ceremonial fund (social solidarity) - Peasants need great variety of services (transportation, vet for cattle) - Hierarchy of services (small, intermediate, high) - Peasants confront state: power not distrib equally (state controls e/thing) - When modernization/glz comes, forces peasants to diff kinds of adaptation - Sys they are used to can’t survive - Walking to the market - Connection to market stressed all the time - Background: why landscapes in bad shape? Peasants have lost access to best land, pushed up to mountains to practice agricul not sustainable  Terraces: local station of Baptist mission - Low-order central place: the village - Intermediaries: walk up to mountains, by fr/peasants, transport to markets - Travelling market women: have critical role in this marketing sys - Regional market - Big trucks transformed into buses (ppl inside, top = agricul produce) - Intermediaries: slim profit margins, if use control of produce = broke  Only best financed intermediaries can afford to send their produce - What are intermediaries actually doing on markets?  Small quantities of produce arrive transported by ppl (bulking)  S/grading happening (bad + good produce separated)  Packing + transporting to cities  In larger ones: have slaughterhouse + paid  Outside: illegal slaughtering place (no taxes) - Police, notaries, wholesale buying agents, school, clinics, NGO offices - Peasants can’t remain isolated  Historically: imp argument to be made, today, no  Many ways peasants connected to structures  Prob: connected on very unfavourable terms - Road construction causing soil erosion - Damages permanently land which otherwise could be worked by peasants Basic Determinants of Peasant Production Land Title, quality, topography, distance, ecological zone, altitude Labour Human capital, hh production unit, forms of labour mobilization, sharecropping Capital Financial capital, access to banking, credit, tools, inventories Technology Seeds, inputs, irrigation Market Access, info, services, middlemen State Regulation, taxation, services, provision of land - Why are these soc so stratified? - 1 landowner, many small peasants, need labour + pay (patron-client relationship)  Relationship of dependence - Planting beans, all ready to harvest at around same time - Landowner hires peasants to harvest beans at best time, peasants can’t pick own beans Videos - Video 1: Ppl have identified cattle = issue (ownership) - Has potential, appears what they did before wasn’t effic - Give them cattle (upgraded) + advice - Cattle produce offspring, has to be handed off to next family (spread goods around) - Promising: it’s not a patronizing approach (don’t try regulate e/day life of farmers) - There is a wisdom built into project, relatively realistic - H: if weak state, police will find way to take away cows - If there is not a strong protect of private property, if poor = lose cows - Give resources only if give ppl means to manage + keep resources (collectivizing) th - Video 2: Pakistan (4 largest producer milk, 97% sold loc, informally)  Nestle gets market shares - Nestle gets market shares by creating these programs - Prob of outdated + orthodox practices = “poverty-stricken farmers”  tradit = bad, more $ if modz - Solution: give them mod, improved technology + infrastructure (transportation)  prosperity - 2 videos agree increase in agricul production, choose dairy production as focus of work - Approaches diff: 1) trusts loc communities to work out basic econ + soc Qs  2) high-tech pckg + can’t deviate fr/this Risks in Peasant Agricultural Production - Type I: Loss of harvest (loss due to unforeseen weather condits/pests) - Type II: Loss of control over land (owner takes back rented/sharecropped land) - Type III: Low return on labour (annual crops req much higher labour input than perennials) - Type IV: Excessive income fluctuations (concentration of annual income at harvest time) Risk Levels of Traditional Agricultural Technology Type of Risk II: Loss of control III: Low return IV: Excessive I: Loss of harvest over land on labour income fluctuation Agricultural Technology Traditional Intercropping Annuals Lower Lower Higher Lower Perennials Lower Higher Lower Lower Traditional Monocropping Annuals Higher Lower Higher Higher Perennials Lower Lower Lower Higher Risk Levels of Modern Agricultural Technology Type of Risk II: Loss of control III: Low return IV: Excessive I: Loss of harvest over land on labour income fluctuation Agricultural Technology Traditional Intercropping Annuals Higher Lower Higher Lower Perennials Higher Higher Lower Lower Traditional Monocropping Annuals Higher Lower Higher Higher Perennials Higher Higher Lower Higher Rural Development (Chapter 9 HSB) - Objectives: - Key features of rurality - Sustainable livelihoods, peasant smallholders - Population pressure + technology - Paradigm shifts - Challenges to rural development - Key issues: - Land tenure - Extensification vs. intensification - Transformation: Malthus, Marx, Boserup - Questions for critical thought - Poverty in rural vs. urban places: who is better off and why? - Is Boserup’s analysis superior to others? - Top-down vs. bottom-up approaches: when + why will they work? (play-pump video) - Is agricul devel the answer to food security? - Single most thing to do for peasant farmers = minimize risk (not maximize production) Peasant Strategies for Dealing with Risk - 1) Diversify agricultural production - 2) Use intercropping techniques - Intercropping tradit crops w/mod tree seedlings (agri-forestry project)  Not only intercropping of various crops, but ea/protects ea/fr/pests  Combo of tradit + mod plants - Intercropping corn + mod trees  Trees planted on purpose for their food (fast-growing hardwood trees)  Corn grows optimally w/lots of sunshine, H: will grow w/partial shade  Not increasing profits overall, but reducing risk 3) Develop environment as feasible - 4) Develop networks of support - 5) Diversify tenure status of land parcels - 6) Constitute non-bank savings - 7) Diversify sources of income - 8) Establish migration network Soil Erosion - Eroded soils in Haiti (Hispaniola)
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