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SOCI 254 (101)
Uli Locher (67)

Education and Development

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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 254
Uli Locher

Education and Development - Edu ministries + devel agencies = united front, sit in offices + est goals - Human capital vs. transformational approach - Supply side arguments - Need more edu kids, increase size of edu faculties in universities, more book (increase supply) - S/cases, works  also run into bottlenecks  Spent considerable amount of limited resources on things that don’t work out - Prob: limited finances + bottlenecks you are producing, disorganized way that various parts of edu sys are put out there - Many schools built, H: teacher training not advanced yet, schools serving no purpose  Added resource will not be the same 3 years later (e/thing stolen)  Instead of having common resources, become an open access resource - Supply-side arguments on organisational level freq fail - Also substantive level fail  Want to expand school sys, need to do w/most advanced, pedagogical insights  Get rid of corporal punishment (present in conservative school sys throughout world)  Want kids to learn s/thing that is useful  Is schooling in vernacular lang/national lang?  What do parents want? National lang for better future  Pedagogs: young kids ought to be schools in dialect or else don’t understand anything  Supply side: going to do s/thing modern, courageous, give training in lang understand  Parents: no, sacrifice income for private schools teach in national lang  Supply side give them what parents don’t want = problem - Since these are common problems throughout world, academics involved as consultants - Best practices emerge: what is best way respond (whole libraries of ‘best practices’) - Are best practices in one area transferable to others?  Best practices are best in specific places, not easily replicable other parts world - Ideology driven: common preferred girls’ edu - Always say critically imp in devel - H: this is our ideological position, trying to impose on soc where this is primarily not ideological posit  prob power relations - Haiti, gov neglected edu increasingly over the years (public edu collapsed) - Proportion public edu down, private edu increased (85%)  Not all rich private, elite schools, most very poor + miserable - If want to help edu in this kind of place: this is all wrong, need public schools  Then trying to impose fr/outside standards - Need to say: kids in private school receive s/thing w/worth  give $ to private schools - Dominican Republic: edu in very tradit sense - Edu learn stuff on labour market, business ppl in DR build up private school edu sys - Public edu sys ruined (by teachers) - Need was great, ppl crying out for schools which were actually opened  Learn what was imp to learn (parents definition) - Does education affect development? - Yes, but not if you simply have schools  Might have empty schools, teachers w/out diplomas - Performance of edu sys - Problematic, need to have well-performing sys - Leakage in edu sys - Educational reforms - The rise of private education (when gov edu assistance collapses) - School feeding programs - Girls’ education Education and Economic Growth - Human capital  higher productivity - Productivity effects - Consumption effects - Ppl more productive, produce more value  increase consumption - Multiplier effects - Reduced inequality - Hope: b/c all ppl bottom of hierarchy raised, higher buying levels, more poli influ - Long-term structural effects - Lorenz curve closer to line of equality - Indirect effects through reductions in fertility, morbidity, infant mortality - Especially if have adolescent girls + keep them in school Performance of educational sys - World-wide performance has increased - Gross enrollment rate: - Edu stats, edu ministry + add them all up (numerator) - Kids of appropriate age group (denominator) - 2005: 107% world-wide gross enrollment ratio  Counted all kids in school, H: s/kids are older than regular age for primary school  Sig prob many places: 75% of kids in primary edu, over age  need selection mechanism  Must have these kids in school but they have diff needs - Revealing in terms of cost of sys - Don’t really tell us about what’s really going on - Net enrollment rate: - Below 100% b/c numerator: only kids in schools w/appropriate age - Why do we get gross rates reported then?  Much easier to do  To have good net rates, presume reliable census info - Useful for targeting interventions Leakage in Educational System - Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys - Inappropriate allocation of resources - Staff related leakages - Inappropriate assignments  Freq practice expressing urban bias (Ex: student/teacher ratios 4x higher in rural areas) - Absenteeism  Teachers don’t show up, if they do, don’t do much teaching  Ex: Uganda edu 27%, health 37%, Mozambique health 19% (supps findings other studies) - Ghost workers (teachers dead but still on pay roll)  Uganda: ghost workers rep ~20% of workforce - Promo good teachers into non-teaching positions (become bureaucrats)  S/times bureaucrats = parasites living off sys Private vs. social costs and benefits of education - Social costs = high (can be working instead to provide fam income) - There are always private costs - Direct costs vs. opportunity costs (private costs) - Opp cost increases as child is older - Social benefits are higher in primary schooling - Private benefits are higher in secondary + higher edu - Increasing pressure as kids age to take them out of school - To put all kids in primary school = very good for entire nation that finances it - Produces relatively higher level human capital Single best investment in poor countries, producing highest long-term returns - Girls’ edu (best investment at primary level) - Hyro-electric power plant? / Nuclear power plant? / Gold mines / National railway sys / Building model cities / Tourism infrastruc? Video: Dubai Cares Working in Ghana - Collab w/gov, provide kids food during school - Connection b/w nutritional level + learning capacity - Health intervention (deworming kids) - Children fed w/food grown by Ghana’s poor farmers - Long term prob: aid brings cheap food fr/elsewhere, undermines loc food produc,poor famers broke Objectives of School Reform - Universal access - Free education in public schools - National curriculum for all, inclu private schools - Mother tongue instruction (MTI) - Modernization of sys according to best practices learned elsewhere - International financing Cognitive Results of the Reform - Overall performance in reformed schools was significantly worse than in tradit schools - Urban students did better than rural (worldwide trend) - Students in relig schools did better than lay school students - Grade 6: difference in French competency, though still favouring tradit schools, was not large - MTI didn’t ruin French acquisition The Legacy of the Reform: MTI - Creole = lang as instruction, as well as subject of instruction all along fundamental edu - French = subje
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