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Lecture 7

SOCI 254 Lecture 7: 1-12-2017 Development Theories

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 254
Amm Quamruzzaman

1/12/2017 Theories of Development Development Economics Western Philosophy -Markets reflect choices, and this choice/freedom is essential to development -Comes from the human propensity to look for self-gain maximization -Thus the market is neutral and results in efficient outcomes -Too much impetus on human liberty, liberalism made the market the most important institution -According to Polanyi, Liberalism discounts other traits/values like redistribution, reciprocity, etc -Karl Marx said this was normalized as private motivation for a “naked cash nexus” Development Economics-Markets -Identifying development with economic growth and rising consumption privileges the market as the main vehicle of social change -Underlying philosophy that markets maximize individual preferences and allocate resources efficiently -Derived from Adam Smith -He believed, however, that markets needed to be controlled by moral sentiments and relations that govern and constitute society -This has been warped by modern policymakers Today’s Dilemma-Market or State -Hegel and Marx through the state was indispensible for correcting and opposing corrosive market forces -Soviet Union led successful centrally planned industrialization -Proved state can play a role (but at what cost?) -To revive the economy after the depression policymakers looked to Keynes’ ideas of government intervention -Keynsian politics saw recessions and depressions as cyclical deficits of demand that created market power -Globalization still favors former colonial powers through these cycles -State must step in (as per Keynsians) during crisis to provide safety nets -Some say state should run big industries Modernization Theory Origins -Influential post-WWII -In the emerging Cold War order Main Arguments -Internal factors are the most responsible for underdevelopment -Illiteracy, traditional agrarian structure, lack of tech, traditional attitudes, low division of labor, and lack of communication and infrastructure -Changing this is key -Developed nations must help underdeveloped ones catch up Theorists-Weber -Max Weber, a German sociologist, identified key factors -Put importance on religion and especially the need for Protestant work ethic -Reinvesting proceeds of life -Basis of rational behavior that led believers to success and be sure of God’s grace -Thus he applied religious theory to development -Money begets money Parsons and Smelser (Economy and Society, 1956) -Internal factors called pattern variables -Affectivity vs affective neutrality -Diffuseness vs specificity -Particularism vs universalism -Ascription vs achievement -Collective orientation vs self orientation Theorists-Rostow -Rostow proposed stages of growth -Celebrated Western free enterprise in his 1960 work, Stages of Economic Growth, a Non- Communist Manifesto Later a supporter of Vietnam war Modernization-Five Stages 1. Traditional society: Agrarian, underdeveloped 2. Preconditions for takeoff (17 and 18 cent): Absorbing surplus labor from rural areas, commercialization of agriculture, gradual tech evolution, state formation through education, science, etc 3. Takeoff (most important, 19 cent): Institutionalization of modern tech and investment, strong faith in science/rationalism/tech, 10% investment rates 4. Drive to maturity: Second industrial revolution moving from textiles and iron to machines, chemicals, and electric equipment 5. Age of high mass consumption: Movement from basic to durable goods, urbanization, rising service sector economy Problems -Not a linear structure -Reflected the US’ success so it is Eurocentric -Political agenda would be available to spur the Third World into these stages -Naturalized as an evolutionary process, pretending it’s not socially engineered -Paradox is that this is implemented via trade, aid, and military Dependency Origins -Came in the 1970s as a reaction to Rostow -Generally espoused by the left Theory -Capitalist system problematic -Key Variable: Argue that there is an uneven trade relation between developed and developing nations, which creates hegemony and symbolic dominance partnered with underdevelopmentnegative trade balance, chronic shortage of capital, debt crisis -Key cause: Dependent relations based on international division of labor, like how developed nations produce industrial goods but developing nations solely provide raw materials -Mechanism of Dependency: Unequal trade relations between dominant nations (core, metropolis) and dependent country (periphery, satellite) -Development and underdevelopment are linked thanks to uneven power structures and relationships -Andre Gunder Frank
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