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Lecture 3

249 - Week 6 – Lecture 3 - Fascism and Bolshevism.docx

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

Week 6 – Lecture 3 War, States and Social Change Fascism, Post-War Order and Bolshevism Dialogue and interaction between the theories – are they mutually exclusive or do they include each other e.g. hst, liberalism - in what ways do they complement each other - compare theories and their compatibility 4 questions – choose one and answer it during the Friday time slot concentrate on each theory – know their assumptions and what their arguments are re. bringing peace and escalation - how do they apply to periods of escalation and peace that we have so far encountered? Why do people argue that WW1 and WW2 are the continuation of the same process? How did things change post-WW2? Bolsheviks: - Why was there a B Revolution? o Marxists = look to nations like Britain or Germany where a revolution will occur but instead Russia emerged as the most ideal place for it to happen  this was where it occurred  What conditions ensured that it was more likely that a revolution would occur in Russia? (Goodwin) • Society in the Russian state – impinged on the liberties of the people meaning there was a clash between the two • Russia wasn’t as industrialised as other nations in Europe • Defeat during the War (role of the state and the structure of state with it’s breakdown – opportunistic structures will emerge under a certain type of state and it’s breakdown) = Russian state was oppressive and rather exclusionary – any type of civil society organisations would be shut downAND it was a state that had been defeated in war  inability = bankrupt, food shortages, no longer able to repress the people/crack down the people that it had previously… • more militarised and aggressive youth that were disenchanted = fought in war and came back defeated and unfulfilled – had problems with the state and then had the ability to violently confront them (same as Germany – soldiers came back and were not treated as heroes, and were not integrated yet they still had control over arms) • there was a politicised working classes = British working class were not conscious of politics as much as those in Russia  organised mass group that could consider the revolution • Leninist argument of a vanguard group = core group of Bolsheviks whom are ideologically committed to the revolution  their actions are crucial for bringing revolution as with the French jacobins o Important – not just re. the coming of revolution but also what happens afterwards =the Soviets become a party-state where the party is the state = core grew in the actual revolution but also in the following events o Social composition of the Bolsheviks – many aren’t Russian – over 50% are those whom are not from the core of the Russian empire but actually different parts of the empire e.g. Georgia, Poland etc.  also Jewish background • 19thC = era of nationalism; those whom were minorities – Jewish – then nationalism actually excludes you as many nationalisms were actually quite anti-semitic = core group also tries to constitute the empire under new management = excluded people whom are attempting to reconstitute the empire without nationalisms that force people out of place • developmental party = committed to the idea of the industrialisation of the proletariat – working class was a small percentage of the population  1920 onwards sees the movement towards industrialisation and advancement beyond the capitalist world • like the French Revolution = period of war communism: during the French Rev external threats created martialling behind the regime o similar mechanism was in the case of the Bolsheviks – foreign powers supported the White Army and thus there was popular support for the Red Army  in a year or so it regained much of the territory that had been lost by Russia in 1917/8 • dialogue between a revolution and external threats and external forces… - intellectual component of the revolution – often that the core group is urban intellectual background o creation of the working class = a contributing force but does not form revolution (vs. Tocqueville) o interesting to note that many of these things that can be considered for Russia, can also apply to Germany  failed revolution in Germany = Spartacus Revolution  BUT military was still in place Fascism - unli
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