Class Notes (811,047)
Canada (494,460)
SOCI 265 (51)
Lecture 4

265 - Week 4 – Lecture 1 - Westphalia .docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

Week 4 – Lecture 1 SOCI 265 - War, States and Social Change Westphalia What is it causes wars at a particular time? - genuine empirical material Not the case that realism – small calculations, relatively small conflicts until balance is re-established – can explain when war becomes absolutely fatal in European history (diagram 1) - 1648 and then moderation afterwards ThirtyYears’War = kills 3 million people – 1/3 of the population of central Europe - incredibly vicious – sucks in all the powers = definitely France, at a particular time, when it seems the Catholic will win, Gustavus Adolphus – Protestant Sweden – is drawn in - began in 1618  Europe rent apart by the Reformation vs. Counter-Reformation (Northern Europe and Bohemia – Protestant) o militant, serious and determined to reconquer the Protestant world  esp. at the Battle of White Mountain by Prague - Battle begins the period when Europe is riven by religious conflict  Catholic countries and also Protestants as well as internal civil war also o Very vicious  King of France even tempted to call on the Turks for aid (Diagram 2) 30 YW – Kaiser: interesting and strong passage about the King of France – the sovereign and head of state - Louis XIV – ‘I am the state’= one person should be in charge of the st▯tabsolutism - 1618-1648 = the King was not in charge at all  couldn’t calculate at all and the state was very messy o Why?  Couldn’t control his own nobility (Kaiser – index Guise)  when he decided for power reasons to ally with the Protestants, his own people would not allow him as Spanish troops were called in by the Duke of Guise as they supported by the Counter-Reformation • there was no single state policy because his mobility could not be controlled  also enormous difficulties raising taxes  nearly all sociology of states can be done by studying the tax base = the tax take of the French state goes down thus making the King weaker = Messy-state  absolute wars of religion also just before the period e.g. 1572 Catherine de Medici massacres Protestants in the centre of Paris and Henry IV forced to convert ‘Paris is worth a mass’ - heterogeneity of the European system cannot be overstated = Counter-Reformation is a war of against all, since ideology is completely divided as led by the Jesuits o fundamental increase of messy-state and European heterogeneity  hate each other since they regard the other side as people who will destroy the chances of Salvation o states in general cannot really control their own people Gardens of Wallenstein – Wallenstein Palace (index – Wallenstein) - Wallenstein = military entrepreneur and geniu▯ during the 30YW he had his own enormous private army o Bigger than that of the Holy Roman Emperor  bigger than any King and he could switch sides  could not be controlled by any state  Excessively referred to by German history and arts  military entrepreneur is again bigger than any state (as in France where the nobles are bigger) Another factor = e17thC  military revolution  not due to a particular piece of technology but instead because of drill manuals - fighting is hell and often people run away o very rarely do people hit a target because hands are shaking so much  explosion of drill manuals and increase in the size of armies  started by Gustavus Adolphos and others had to copy him  highly drilled and organised troops with armies up to 300,000 = people had to copy and thus there was more pressure to hire entrepreneurs also as well as raising taxes which increases internal pressure Escalation = the square of Heterogeneity and Messy states - European world torn apart plus states that were confused with limited control over their people - Ends in 1648 – marked by 2 treaties  Westphalia and Osnabruck o War ended due to total exhaustion o For 30 – 100 years, people had been trying to ram their own religion down the throats of the other side = it was a stalemate though
More Less

Related notes for SOCI 265

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.