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Lecture 2

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

Week 4 – Lecture 2 SOCI 265 – War, States and Social Change TheAge of Revolution 02/10/2013 One of the greatest peaks in European warfare = Can be measured in the size of armies – 200,000 active troops – Napoleon takes 500,000 to Russia in 1812 Major war though not as destructive as the 30YW – character of the world war  fighting in India and the Atlantic  attempts to block the Mediterranean and French Atlantic sugar colonies Napoleon had designs on Istanbul, Libya before his defeat in Egypt by Nelson 1817 – Napoleon forced to abdicate (WHEN?!) Why was there this great spike?? Begin to emerge certain complexities which meet later when thinking about Hitler and considering which theories make most sense when considering peace and war What is the age of revolutions about? What has changed? New principles of politics The people count – people enter the political stage  symbolised by the French Revolution Afundamental move in the enlightenment to imagine that human beings all have the capacity to think individually Everyone should be educated so that everyone could and should count Tocfield = ‘the age of equality’(Mme de Chatelet – interpreter to the French of Newton’s Principles) New world had been born = world of equality where people count Idea of nationalism = heavily related to war  if state asks one to die for it  one starts to ask questions about who’s state Why die for this entity and nation? In 18thC in the long struggles between France and Britain = characteristic national stereotypes developed British = proud, determined, slightly think, commonsensical, hearty, reliable / perfidious albion, lies constantly, Montesquieu – all drunkards. French = devious, too many nice clothes, effeminate, despotic States ask for more of people = states interfere in civil societies and civil societies react  nationalism is the reaction = modern world is about popular politics as the people at the end of the 18thC come in two forms: Classes Nations Foretaste of this change in theAmerican Revolution = the people who make the elite whom made the Revolution really desired to establish themselves as a new upper class BUT military capability of the lower classes meant that a popular society was more created instead Principle present but somewhat distant – ‘we the people, we the nation’ Really important = France 18thC = really important conflict between France and England aside from losing the american colonies, Britain tended to win key thing here is diplomacy  the ability to have allies elsewhere so that some enemies may be fighting two wars against once American WoI = Britain had no allies  fear that French would invade Ireland  most troops were kept at home whilst many troops inAmerica fighting were German mercenaries Generally though, Britain has diplomatic skill  gives money to powers on the continent whom are enemies of British enemies Why does Britain not have a revolution? Infinitely more cohesive than France – revolution in the 17thC  after a republic, the upper class is able to control its executive in Parliament  Parliament is the British upper class in political power The British state is one in which the interests of the aristocracy are looked after = feel that the state is its own = upper class tax itself at a very high level  RICH  sinews of war = money Also has money because after the post-republican settlement there is the setting up of the Bank of England  government always has the power to borrow money for warfare Kaiser – strategy – ‘blue water school of British politics’ the navy Can outflank its enemies on the seas Free trade – can protect sources of supply Upper class controls the state but is also different from the other upper classes in Europe because it is a commercial aristocracy  in the past, the land has been enclosed and then sold property onwards = more forms of agriculture  more sheep and commerce Don’t want peasants in England they want more commercial farmers  improve land through drainage etc World of capitalism pre-industry  world to which Montesquieu, Voltaire and other French intellectuals come  small island with tremendous power which it asserts through the navy e.g. when it takes French Canada and in India  gains a second empire in India when it’s lostAmerica = can operate on somewhat mobile warfare Why does France HAVE a revolution? In France  the crucial factor of class structure is that the upper class is NOT taxed = deal is made within the French system whereby in the 15thC, the upper class does not pay tax at all Key thing about 18thC in France = rich country, some commerce esp. in the SW w. the wine industry (not totally different from Britain) but the state is POOR Limited finances because the upper class will not pay taxes Housed in Versailles doing little and the state attempts to bypass them to get provincial taxes but the taxrate in Britain is 4 times higher than in France State does not have money = together with participation in wars leads to the breakdown of the state in 1787 Difference between state breakdown and a revolution? (many breakdowns, not all permit a revolution to follow – in a condition of chaos can enter and produce an entirely new world, thus meaning a revolution changes not only the political but also the social order) 1787 Estates-General called (Parliament) – French king has ruled for over 100 years without the EG Petitions are written around France – cahiers de doleances  thousands! Everything seems up for grabs and an old order cannot be re-established Have had to call it because the state is bankrupt – goes to civil society for attempts to raise money French revolutionary force awaiting  the Jacobins = the old-fashioned, Marxist view that this was the bourgeois middle classes vs. the state BUT in actuality, if one does a collective biography of the Committee of Public Safety =ALL were intellectuals (lawyers, published works and had been previously excluded from the social structure in spite of their upwardly mobile tendencies  caused revolutionary ideals) Able to take power because the King has no money to kill the revolutionaries by paying his armies French state weak, Jacobins and Girondins were there French Revolution = unfolds in a period = process from 1789 to 1799 when Napoleon is elected 1 Consul and a military dictatorship begins Process of revolution has much to do with war and conflict within the state Conflict between the Girondins and Jacobin to do with external policy (as in Russia around 1917) Should the revolution be exported? Should we take on the powers which are opposed to us? Lenin in 1917 – NO – cement the revolution and gives hundreds of square miles of former Russian territory Robespierre – NO – BUT – power struggle and the Girondin say that we must expand  if expanding on the back of a powerful, successful war then they will gain power = France begins to attack the other European powers BUT – the revolution is solidified in power because of this Armies of Prussia and Austria move into attack and this leads to Robespierre into power  we must organise society in every way to protect the revolution further ‘the Terror’occurs – 40,000 aristocrats are executed dangerous to attack a revolution because it gives it much energy  defends its principles Kaiser  combination of popular feeling and national sentiment in the early years = permit French expansion into Holland and the Rhineland BUT France did not have much money Quartering the troops  making invaded states pay for them Did not export revolutionary sentiment but did spread nationalism amongst European nations whom were unhappy with French occupation as they were supposed to pay indemnities Means the Revolution cannot really establish itself  very small leaders and have to fight civil wars e.g. the Vendée Eventually fall because the army gains more power  NAPOLEON BONAPARTE 1796 = invades Italy  Refuses to be paid by the state and instead pays his own army with Italian gold 1804 – the Pope called to Paris to crown him as Emperor who acquiesces – Emperor to 1815 Napoleon On the continent of Europe = enormously successful  time and again combinations of estates ally against him yet he has continuous success against them Clausewitz  NB was a military genius  based on one fundamental breakthrough which others did not adapt to  took advantage of agricultural change in Europe Crop yields had increased due to new drainage systems etc = more food Armies in old regimes had supplied themselves with baggage trains  100,000 troops with carts behind them w. food, tents and women = Old regime armies were VERY SLOW. Napoleon did something different = armies were split into 3, 4 or 5 units with no baggage train  move through and steal the food he needed  then forced enemies into battle when his 5 units had joined together against the enemy = decimated his enemies – Vienna,Austerlitz Lasted from 1802-1803 but also much success from 1803-1812 Problem? Wanted a European empire 1805 – lost his navy  Tried to create a continental system of political economy  Couldn’t get sugar beet from the West Indies  tries to establish a continental economic system which the British could blockade because of the Navy Popular resistance – first occasion of genuine resistance from the lower classes through guerrilla warfare in Spain – aided by Britain Personality element = 1812 – invades Russia with ½ a million troops Too late in the year  Russians destroy his tactics because they burn everything before him = no food and its winter 40,000 survive over all Napoleon  returns to France in 1813 = the Battle of the Nations = all the allies against him and offer terms to return to the traditional borders of France and in 1814 he is deposed before coming back in 1815 and being finally destroyed DIAGRAMS 1 – Revolutionary wars French trans-European aristocracy  scared of the lower classes Totally heterogeneous system  even Napoleon believes in skill over class For much of the period there is much political fighting and instability which means it is a messy state pre- military dictatorship Homogeneous state and rational state = people understand each other and can communicate = diminished conflict Heterogeneous state and messy state = BOTH systems of sophisticated realism are working at the same time, reinforcing each other BUT sometimes these principles aren’t both present at the same time 2 – 1799-1813 much heterogeneity but states are becoming rather good at calculating – Napoleon controls the French state rational states inside a relatively heterogeneous world heterogeneity = partly revolutionary system and also realist fear of Napoleon’s ambitions for a world empire Kaiser notes that by 1813 people know Napoleon he is not a revolutionary (similar to the Bolsheviks)  know that he plays by the same rules of the state power game 3 – 1813-1814 in a sense there is a homogeneous state hwere there is no revolution BUT something still goes wrong for Napoleon = he understood and understands the other states  they offer him a way out = they know he is not truly revolutionary and they are all exhausted N cant take the offer since his state has become messy = he can’t control his own state any longer  Kaiser: N has risen to power on the bank of a new class who populate the thrones of Europe and they don’t want to come home since they will lose their power also if they return to France What matters more in the modern world? Homogeneous states or states that can calculate? Week 5 – Lecture 1 Sociology 265 – War, States and Social Change Pax Britannica? 02/10/2013 Historical period = the long peace of the 19thC between 1815 and 1914 there are remarkably few wars within the European sphere (though also conquering large parts ofAfrica, leaning on the doors of China) External military capacity = enormous Internally – 1864 – German and Denmark war German unification  also leads to war againstAustria  Bismarck does not want the option of Greater Germany because he wants Prussia to control the bigger state 1881 = Germany against France Italian contruction of the state = at least a point of diminished violence some things that demonstrate peace - the creation of Belgium  was born in 1830 in a moment of intellectual enthusiasm by middle-class people  done with much agreement = done by European powers with little trouble! - the Danube  transportation valley in Europe = international waters with regulatory scheme that was not owned by any particular state - Italian unification = principality originally  created as a state with a little violence surrounding it, but not much = desire to make Italy into a nation of Italians o To create one language from a series of principalities - creation of Germany = wars between intermediate neighbours, but no great European powers really intervened - 1878 (?!) = Congress of Berlin  Russians entered eastern Europe = Bismarck called the Congress and Russia agreed to give up some of their territories e.g. Romania becomes it’s own state Why is this possible? - Immediate truth o 1815 = the great powers agreed to never again let a revolutionary force cause 20 years of war  utterly exhausting and destroyed the position of the French aristocracy  attacked the regime and threatened much of what everyone represented ‘we should never again let that happen!’  Week 5 – Lecture 1 Sociology 265 – War, States and Social Change Pax Britannica? 02/10/2013 before 1789 = French Rev took place because the upper classes did not support the King; post-1815 – the establishment and the upper classes were tightly bound together  19 C = period of protection of the regime as authoritarian regimes were maintained ‘never do anything which is enthusiastic’= order is everything =Austrian Metanic (?) established the concert system going to meet together fairly regularly to make absolutely certain that even the sighting of a revolution would be put down  most importantly to keep the French in place behind their borders and prevent their expansion!! Agreement of all against one who had been revolutionary to prevent it from occurring Met repeatedly (dates in Kaiser)  Mettanic, Castlereagh Kissinger = ‘AWorld Restored’ Concert system broke down after 1822 when GB left = Castlereagh (Foreign Secretary) left and was replaced by Canning Canning did not wish the Spanish to recreate their LatinAmerican empire as there was much revolution Declared protection for the revolutions there = ‘protect the new world to balance the old’ Concert system = acted very firmly indeed! 1848 = much revolution! They fail though  Budapest revolutions was disrupted by Russian troops Austro-Hungary and the Ottomans survive as do the multi-national empires = something to the idea that the concert system works Hegemonic Stability Theory = peace in capitalist society when there is a leading liberal hegemon which provides certain things from a system that has functional centrality – offers defence, free trade, top currency and even absorbs excess product - Theory  PAX BRITANNICA= British kept peace in the 18thC (based on Pax Romana and now Pax Americana (according to theAmericans!)) Did Britain provide hegemonic services such that there was peace in the 19thC? Why is the theory wrong? GB in military terms was NOT hegemonic since it had a tiny army – massive navy but very, very limited army Week 5 – Lecture 1 Sociology 265 – War, States and Social Change Pax Britannica? 02/10/2013 1864 – Bismark’s Germany was defeating the Danes and taking territory just above Hamburg and they could have essentially taken the whole of Denmark  the Britain started to say that enough is enough  fears began that the British would invade but Bismarck said that a detachment of police could be sent to defeat them! Britain really did not want to fight a land war in Europe The Russian army was huge, the German army was very technologically advanced and France – because of conscription – was large Britain had nothing except a navy and so was not able to provide defence for a capitalist society This was a period of 5 great powers – Germany, GB, Austria-Hungary, France and Russia  all pay fairly similar amounts for their military services = Britain is not providing the service of defence for all HST says that a great power provides a top currency  Britain did not really do that! The gold standard at the end of the 19thC was not Britain’s property = was self-regulating and stakes bought into it when they wanted, not because Britain told them to do so London had a position where one could gain investment around the world but states there if they wanted to but this was not control USAhas control of the dollar since they print money which the world has to absorb whilst the world bank is in dollars – NOT gold Britain did not occupy this position Did Britain insist that other powers have free trade? 1846 – Corn Laws = suggested that these were fundamental since they were saying that ‘we will no longer protect our agriculture’: we will buy some of our food from overseas = FREE TRADE and no longer supporting domestic agriculture idea is that free trade will then spread BUT – the British would never be anything other than autonomous in terms of food since they had the navy, Australia and Canada = could protect globally their food transports Rest of the world knew that = if they gave up their own food production they could be starved to death, whilst the British could not 1840s-1870 = is an increase in free trade but because tariffs were cut as trade was legalised and smuggling was removed = revenues went up but this was centred on their own self-interest incomes went up because it was in their own
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