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Lecture 2

265 - Week 6 - Lecture 2 - Fascism.docx

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Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

Week 6 - Lecture 2 History 265 - War, States and Social Change Fascism Revision session – next Wednesday Fascism and Nazism – difference between the two in that f is far more revolutionary since it seeks to coordinate and control society far more than in Spain and Italy - Hitler fundamentally organised society = much more revolutionary o also has degree of anti-Semitism  killer at the highest rate compared to Stalin Important that there is a certain continuity inside Germany  what does Hitler want? - Antisemitism did want was what many European states pre-1914 had wanted = an empire o For secure sources of supply and markets  lebensraum has larger connotations slightly but the experience of Vienna in WW1 is near-starvation due to the British blockade of the coast  Security is traditional German policy but to a greater degree e.g. oil from Romania so that Germany can have geopolitical independence Hitler’s nationalism is a very particular type  memo from Himmler in the East post-1941 = ‘the empire should be forAryans. We can’t make it only forAryans at the moment because Poles and Slavs need to provide food. It will take time and stability before we can kill them all’ - not a traditional empire – an empire is the centre to which separate societies speak but they don’t speak to each other o Hitler’s empire is V different = large territory but without the spokes  Aryan and national NOT imperial  it would be a single national affair hence the camps How did the Nazi Revolution happen? - link between state breakdown and creation of the revolution o state breakdown has multiple elements  1918 – German armies are not defeated but facing defeat and so power is handed to Social Democrats • 1919 – ‘a stab in the back’– Germans were never defeated on the battlefield  SD’s see Communists setting up barricades in Berlin and Munich with their political rivals on the Left and so they suppress them o if there is division on one side of the political spectrum, it allows the right to get in to a position of authority  resentment of the Versailles treaty – insisted on German guilt yet they had been led into it by the elite and also reparations  had to pay money because they were guilty • Keynes  Germany was an export market for France and England, and so demand was lost for their products ‘Economic Consequences of the Peace’ o French = believed that harshness was good but Versailles was a harsh treaty that was NOT enforced  If one is going to be harsh, be harsh and have stability = if one can’t be harsh, be generous BUT don’t pretend to be harsh and then let someone dribble away as they take back territory etc. • Morgenthal considered turning Germany back to agriculture in 1945 but realised the lack of wisdom in this • Inflation of 1923 = massive  destroyed the savings of the middle class in one go = Weimar Republic = Germany was recovering but was hated on the right since there was social welfare reforms e.g. rights for women - there were many enormous political difficulties due to the national territories that were left outside = nationalist parties were always very strong o it was very hard to get political stability due to the massive differences Great Depression hits and a post-war constitution gives emergency power to the President and then Hitler comes to power = STATE FAILURE This is different to a revolution though = all through the period there is dissent and unrest  demonstrations in the street as liberalism seems pathetic – battles between communists and Nazis Who were the Nazis and what was their revolutionary goal? - not really the case that the Nazis belonged to any particul▯all social classes voted for the Nazi party although there are some patterns o there was a little resistance from trade unions and higher participation amongst state servants and VERY high participation amongst university students  post-ww1 Germany = the best and brightest, most sincere and most moral students who were concerned to make their country work again were members of the Nazi youth • Nazism was a moral creed that was bigger than pure liberal, maximising yourself interest • National solidarity after humiliation o Intellectuals were over-represented in another sense  End of War – world of trenches produced interest in the theories of existentialism and the art of misery • Expressionist art  world is empty, miserable, depressed = very striking hard  The Nazi elite = many had been close to art in one way or another – Hitler and esp. Goebbels the propaganda minister • G = wrote a novel at the end of the war  if one is completely miserable and empty, one is open to moral creed if it becomes available – this may have occurred also o There was not an enormous amount of protest to Nazism e.g. Heydigger - Leni Reisenthal – Triumph of Will film about the Nuremburg rally o Hitler = flew into begin with  strange world because it’s backward looking  reactionary but modern  Nazism is reactionary modernism  Massive charisma of the Nazi leader  Rally = militarism and bloodlust – BismarckFrei: ‘blood and iron’ o Good film – avant garde film maker and shows the Nazis were modern in terms of propaganda o SD’s were so respectable that they did not organise the countryside whereas Hitler organised everybody – a party that organised and mobilised  Utterly modern – propaganda techniques of Goebbels were incredible = the most modern performance in Europe at the time - Hitler also needed ex-soldiers – TheodoreAbel interview: returning soldiers were not treated as heroes thus radicalising them enormously o Freicorps = young men were militarised and prepared to fight on the streets against the Communistis  1919 find Luxemburg etc. and kill them  The ex-soldier – like Hitler – is an enormous recruiting ground: know how to kill and fight; not integrated into society BUT –
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