This Section: Analytical sociological concepts
• Relationship between revolution and war
• Ethnicity and war… etc.
• Today: different state systems
• All lectures up until now
o Europe: endless competition
Impossible to escape from it
• Brought a great deal of development with it… states couldn't stand still
o States had to adopt the changes of other states
o Had to build and fund a state structure
• Nationalism stoked by war
o Felt like you were engaged with others like yourselves in a struggle with others who are like
o Russia: "The Great Patriotic War"
• Economic development
From 1914-1945, this pattern brought with it absolute disaster
• Because of nationalist drive that had emerged by 1914, led to absolute horrors.
• Europe: the dark continent of the 20th century
o Mass murder, ethnic cleansing, population movement
• Afew other cases, around the world, where there are state systems with their own stories
o Socialist societies
• Not much war inside the Soviet bloc as there was a single army occupying all territories.
• Warsaw Pact armies all led by Russian officers
• Have been some wars in former soviet areas of Europe, but not much.
Socialism meant there wasn't really a state system…
• Even though there was socialism in Southeast Asia, there was also realism.
• It seemed to work there. No threat of China fighting Vietnam, etc.
• Has European story at back of his mind
• Says that Africa:
o Has a lot of states
But they don't compete
o They are quasi-states
Depend upon international recognition
Many get most of their funding from outside sources
o Don't interfere with each other.
One example: move to invade Uganda when it was under Idi Amin
• Nieri did invade and get rid ofAmin, but he was condemned by organization
1945: UN Charter establishes norm of non-intervention
• Continent that endorsed this more than anyone else was the African continent
• Nieri:All borders within Africa are ridiculous and arbitrary, so they must all be maintained.
• Observations made by Reading
o In Africa, no war; therefore, no development
No penetration of society by taxing authorities
No creation of national sentiment
States are weak as they have never had to do much
• Afghanistan, for another example of this:
o Kharzai can't control much beyond Kabul.
o Likewise in most African states
• Thin states sitting on top of democracies
o The concept of "failed states"
Some states that fail are recreated
Some states fail in some, but not other ways
• What sort of failure? Must ask this
But we think of certain states
• Congo, Haiti,Afghanistan, Nepal
Tend to be certain characteristics of these states
• For some, it's a resource crisis.
o E.g. Blood Diamonds
• These are places of continual ethnic conflict.
o If you count the number of wars, there have been not many classical
interstate wars since 1945 (a few, separation of Bangladesh from
Pakistan, Iran & Iraq, Falklands) but many, many internal civil
Created by ethnic conflict
There is variety, however
• Not all states like that… Botswana has never had a civil war, whereas Nigeria
had a brutal one
• So what is Herbst (sp?) saying?
o Haven't had the European experience
o Haven't had to fight, so haven't had to create modern, deeply penetrative state
Let there be more wars in Africa
o He is not the only person to say the same…
Other reading on the breakup of Yugoslavia: let them fight it out.
o There is logic to this, but it's brutal and repulsive
o The history of Europe killed so many people in the process of creating relatively homogenous
o Morally appalling
o In non-European parts of the world, there have been moments when states have found a way to manage multi-nationality
under a single political roof.
• Huge population, so important
• One element of Indian situation: language
o Many, many languages
o Different languages and different ethnic identities o But India has a