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Lecture 3

265 - Week 8 – Lecture 3 - Ethnicity and Citizenship.docx

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

This Section: Analytical sociological concepts  • Relationship between revolution and war • Ethnicity and war… etc. • Today: different state systems • All lectures up until now o Europe: endless competition  Multi-polar system  Darwinian character  Impossible to escape from it  Two claims: • Brought a great deal of development with it… states couldn't stand still o States had to adopt the changes of other states o Had to build and fund a state structure • Nationalism stoked by war o Felt like you were engaged with others like yourselves in a struggle with others who are like each other. o Russia: "The Great Patriotic War" • Economic development  From 1914-1945, this pattern brought with it absolute disaster • Because of nationalist drive that had emerged by 1914, led to absolute horrors. • Europe: the dark continent of the 20th century o Mass murder, ethnic cleansing, population movement • Afew other cases, around the world, where there are state systems with their own stories o Socialist societies  Soviet Bloc • Not much war inside the Soviet bloc as there was a single army occupying all territories. • Warsaw Pact armies all led by Russian officers • Have been some wars in former soviet areas of Europe, but not much.  Socialism meant there wasn't really a state system… • Even though there was socialism in Southeast Asia, there was also realism. • It seemed to work there. No threat of China fighting Vietnam, etc. o Africa  Reading: • Has European story at back of his mind • Says that Africa: o Has a lot of states  But they don't compete o They are quasi-states  Depend upon international recognition  Many get most of their funding from outside sources o Don't interfere with each other.  Very little  One example: move to invade Uganda when it was under Idi Amin • Nieri did invade and get rid ofAmin, but he was condemned by organization ofAfrican States  1945: UN Charter establishes norm of non-intervention • Continent that endorsed this more than anyone else was the African continent • Nieri:All borders within Africa are ridiculous and arbitrary, so they must all be maintained. • Observations made by Reading o In Africa, no war; therefore, no development  No penetration of society by taxing authorities  No creation of national sentiment  States are weak as they have never had to do much • Afghanistan, for another example of this: o Kharzai can't control much beyond Kabul. o Likewise in most African states  No bureaucracy • Thin states sitting on top of democracies o The concept of "failed states"  Muddy concept  Some states that fail are recreated  Some states fail in some, but not other ways • What sort of failure? Must ask this  But we think of certain states • Congo, Haiti,Afghanistan, Nepal  Tend to be certain characteristics of these states • For some, it's a resource crisis. o E.g. Blood Diamonds • These are places of continual ethnic conflict. o If you count the number of wars, there have been not many classical interstate wars since 1945 (a few, separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan, Iran & Iraq, Falklands) but many, many internal civil wars.  Created by ethnic conflict • Poverty  There is variety, however • Not all states like that… Botswana has never had a civil war, whereas Nigeria had a brutal one • So what is Herbst (sp?) saying? o Haven't had the European experience o Haven't had to fight, so haven't had to create modern, deeply penetrative state o Solution?  Let there be more wars in Africa o He is not the only person to say the same…  Other reading on the breakup of Yugoslavia: let them fight it out. • So? o There is logic to this, but it's brutal and repulsive o The history of Europe killed so many people in the process of creating relatively homogenous states o Morally appalling o In non-European parts of the world, there have been moments when states have found a way to manage multi-nationality under a single political roof.  Example: India • Huge population, so important • One element of Indian situation: language o Many, many languages o Different languages and different ethnic identities o But India has a
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