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265 - Week 9 – Lecture 1 - War and Revolution .docx

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McGill University
Sociology (Arts)
SOCI 265
John Anthony Hall

Week 9 – Lecture 1 Sociology 265 – War, States and Social Change Revolutions - Nature of Revolution (What is a revolution?) 1. in original sense comes around to same point in time - circle coming back in the same place like a bike - returns to same place, full circle  a revolution of a circle 2. political/historical/sociological sense = fundamental removal of a regime normally with violence and complete removal of previous ruling class involving some measure of popular participation from below and leading to some social change in society 3. image of revolution - Tocqueville asks what was France before revolution? o was absolutist regime trying desperately to rule france from centre - after? = more centralized i.e. Napoleon holding watch "i can tell you what every school child is learning"  centralized state system o absolutist before hand --> even more so under Napoleon o might have more change if you have continuous small reforms instead  how effective is a revolution given that it produces counter-revolutionary forces whom are often violent? Revolution and War 1. revolutions are only possible when there is a state breakdown - consequence of state breakdown o this is a clear and very strong relationship e.g. France and Russia!  i.e. French state bankrupt, call estates general, everyone gets fed up, no money to pay troops, bread riot march to Versailles  i.e. Russia, will not fight for the state other than White Guard, call the Duma, state had been relatively strong, but state becomes weak when fighting Japanese - state is broken down because you have been or are engaged in war 2. there are revolutionaries, where do they come from? = political revolutionary feelings come because of being excluded from society - if political regime you live under is inclusionary relatively liberal, you will not be politically radicalized o feel like its your state - authoritarian states inhibits this inclusion though  the other side is excluded o idea is that social movements take on the character of the state with which they interact  i.e. student movements • hard to be powerful • powerful in the 70s after 3 students were shot in Vietnam o state was interf
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