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SOCI 377 (11)
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Lecture

DEVIANCE.docx

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Department
Sociology (Arts)
Course Code
SOCI 377
Professor
Eran Shor

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DEVIANCE Thursday September 08 2011 Positivist Malum in Se NonPositivist Malum Prohibitum Wrong in and of itselfWrong because it is prohibited Murder DEATH PENALYWAR Rape MARITAL RAPE WARCORRECTIVE RAPE Stealing ROBIN HOOD CannibalismP NEW GUINEA Vandalism WAR LA RIOTS Incest BIBLEIs there any evil that IS wrong in its natureProbably notMost evils are relative to society and societal rules BeckerOutsidersTries to deconstruct the thought that there are some behaviors that are malum in se Alternative Relativismfailure to abide by social norms which change between and among societies DEVIANCE is a SOCIAL CREATION CONSTRUCTIONSocial constructionsociety decides what is normative Society needs to define and label a certain act before it is labeled deviantWe must look at the social reaction not the acts themselves to find out what is deviant in a society Who has the power to decide what is deviantCostello Focusing too much on cultural relativism not productive too focus on the differences Suggests to shift our focus to look at CRIMESOnly acts that have a victim should be categorized as deviantex Homosexuality vs Extramarital vs Premaritalcompared peoples responsemost negative responsetoward extramarital where there is a CLEAR victim EssentialismSurvey is relativist however claims are universal Problem with Costellos argument Claim to look at criminal acts Study does not LOOK at crime instead looks at sexual behavior Very LIMITED surveyNO crosscultural examination Looks at very narrow set of behaviors The majority 70 of Americans still said that homosexuality is wrong even if it is a little less than extramarital sex there is still a majority thus one cannot say that it is not considered deviantdata does NOT support argumentHomosexuality is considered deviant without really hurting anyone holes in claim logic and data Extreme relativism would lead us to say that if nothing is innately wrong who are we to regulate and ban deviant behaviorsAlthough it may be beneficial to look at crimes we must also acknowledge the societal differencesNORMS Culturally accepted behaviorsSumnertwo distinctions Moresmore important norms prohibition on killing another person allows society to functionbreaking them usually has a more serious consequence LAWS Folkwaysless important normsnorms used to guide behaviorthe way we dress talk interact etcbreaking them usually has a less serious consequenceWhen break moresjail shunned from society When break folkwaysless formal looks of disapproval and words of disapprovalEx Seinfeldshow about what the norms are and what happens when we break them Sasha Barren Cohenmade a career about breaking norms and recording peoples reactions ex Borat Tuesday September 13 2011 Ethnometodology Garfinkel Focus on folkway How is social order produced and maintained Learn about this through breaching experimentsbreaking social norms ex asked students to go to a supermarket and bargain for the price with a cashier OR take things from other peoples carts and put it into your own REACTION people get annoyed distraught confusedex then asked his students to go home and act like a guest ie ring the doorbell my name is so and so can I stay here for awhileparents became confused and then annoyed exget really close in personal space to someone when you talk to someoneGarfinkel and students tested the boundaries of the rules social normswhen is an act defined as deviant vs in the normsKate Fox breaching and participative observation norms of weather do not argue about the weather weather is a code for small talk rather than a keen intterest in the weatherGOFFMAN 1959 writes a very influential book The presentation of self in everyday lifecompares life to a stage equivalent to theatreall social interaction are staged impression management by clothes costumes accessories gestures postures direction act diction and intonation script social setting background and decorationEx Doctors wear lab coat costume use technical words script remain calm direction act have certificates awards posters in their offices backgroundall to convince of status professionalism someone who is reliable for ones problem SOMETIMES act breaks downbad actor someone having a bad day does not remember does not want to stay on script audience members not participatingplay social norms break downAudience usually feels embarrassed for the person whose act breaks downwe WANT peoples acts to succeed because our whole lives are based on this roleplayingwithout this if people simply just were who they were society would break down most of the time we are unaware of that we are playing these roleswe play a role in front of other people HOWEVER we also have impressionmanagement on ourselves want to convince ourselves that we are a certain way discrepancy of front stage in front of others versus back stage not in front of othersHowever EVEN backstage we do NOT lose our character completely acting impression management on ourselves Cynical and nave role playingCynicalactor knows they are playing a role ex in theatreNaveactor identifies so much with character think it is who we really are play is atits best when lost in the character Audience wants to see nave role playingwant to be convinced that this is who we really areIn real life we flip flop between cynical and naveThere is no social life without norms without rolesEvery time there is ANY times of social interaction there are some type of normsreaction to breaking of normsanxiety stress anger etc learn about social norms through the reaction of others when rules are broken Just as easy to restore the norms as it is to break them ex I did this as a social experiment Members of society usually do not pay attention to these norms until they are brokenClass example TA yells at Prof Shor in the middle of class in front of students to sign a paper TA and prof storm out reactions of class some felt embarrassed some felt bad for teacher breach of power some knew it was a skitHomework Do something to breach social norms What did you do How Who was the audience How did people react Did reactions differ
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