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Department
Social Work
Course
SWRK 224
Professor
Ilju Kim
Semester
Summer

Description
May 3, 2012 – Theories on Human Development History: 17 & 18 centuries  Time period of major debates on the human nature of children o Hobbes: children are inherently selfish egoists who must be restrained in society o Rousseau: children are born with an inherent nature and intuitive sense of right and wrong that society often corrupts; “noble savage” o Locke: children have no inborn tendencies, how they turn out depends entirely on their worldly experiences; “tabula rasa” th 19 Century  Period in which investigators began to observe children, most often their own, to publish data in works known as baby bibliographies  Darwin is one of the most famous writers of this time o Renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection o He believed that infants share many characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors o He developed the theory of… Late 19 —20 centuries  G. Stanley Hall is considered as the founder of developmental psychology  He was interested in children’s thinking: o Logical thinking  He published a book called Adolescence, which was the first one written on this specific age period Modern Developmental Theories Psychoanalytic Viewpoint Freud  Pioneered the study of: o The unconscious mind – something other scientists of the time period were very hesitant to do, as it was not readily measurable by the current scientific instruments o The defense mechanisms – the minds defend itself from harm in the same way that the body does (e.g., denial, displacement, and projection)  Was the first to use talk therapy to cure psychological problems and to analyze dreams  Studied what he believed to be the three sections of the brain: o Superego = the unconscious mind—includes our unconscious drives (many sexual); driven by the pleasure principle o ID = our conscious—regulates our desires and tells us what we can and cannot do within the constraints of our society (develops after age 3); related to the appearance of shame and guilt o Ego = the regulatory section of the brain which makes decisions. Mediates the desires of the ID, and the logic of the Superego; driven by the reality principle  He thought that states of maturation of the sex instinct underlies stages of personality development (psychosexual development) o (0-1 y.o.): the sex instinct centers on the mouth o (1-3 y.o.): voluntary urination and defecation become the primary methods of gratifying the sex instinct. o (3-6 y.o.): pleasure is now derived from genital stimulation, children develop an incestuous desire for the opposite-sex parent (Oedipus complex) o (6-11 y.o.): repression of sexual urges because of the intense sexual conflicts resulting from the phallic phase o (12 and beyond): puberty triggers a reawakening of sexual urges, adolescents need to learn socially acceptable way of expressing them  Contributions: he was one of the first to… o Bring on the concept of unconscious motives; o To focus attention on the influence of early experience on later development; o To study the emotional side of human development (shame, guilt)  Critics (some examples…) o Sexual conflicts may be only representative of sexually repressive Victorian era he lived in o He has contributed to a misogynistic view of women, believing as he did that women are a kind of mutilated male, who must learn to accept their “deformity” (the “lack” of a penis) o He did not provide empirical proof of his work  Richard Webster, author of Why Freud Was Wrong (1995): o “Freud made no substantial intellectual discoveries. He was the creator of a complex pseudo-science, which should be recognized as one of the great follies of Western civilization. In creating his particular pseudo-science, Freud developed an autocratic, anti-empirical intellectual style, which has contributed immeasurably to the intellectual ills of our own era. His original theoretical system, his habits of thought and his entire attitude to scientific research are so far removed from any responsible method of inquiry that no intellectual approach basing itself upon these is likely to endure.” Erikson  He believed that… o Human beings face eight major crises or conflicts during the course of their lives o Personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands  Two major differences between Erikson and Freud’s work o Erikson’s developmental
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