SOCI 254 Lecture Notes - Modernization Theory, Female Education, Postdevelopment Theory

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12 Dec 2012
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Gender mainstreaming ! -
theory and policy (WID,WAD and GAD)! - women in development
(WID): rooted in modernization theory and liberal ideas on
equality; economic change is seen as empowerment and if
women participate in it, they are empowered; consequences - rise
of micro credit policies and recognition of women as integral parts
of a productive economy and substantial increase in number of
professional women in development agencies ! - women and
development (WAD): rooted in dependency theory and Marxist
feminist ideas; economic change is empowerment; advocated no
real policy change around involving women in development
process; operating main,t in academic circles and advocacy
groups (very limited as movement)!
- gender and development (GAD): rooted in postdevelopment
theory and post structuralist critiques among feminists; economic
change doesn't equal empowerment; refocus on gender relations
and roles rather than women as a category; redefine roles of men
and women; effective poverty reduction is gender aware; unlike
WID and WAD no real movement is formed around GAD;distance
from development reality
Female education:
- Higher wages
- More jobs
- Lower fertility
- Effects are transferred to the next generation
- Lower mortality
- Produces different business attitudes and practices (i.e.
entrepreneurship, entering the corporate world)
- Agriculture becomes more productive
- Demographic transition is accelerated (high B & D low B & D:
stage in between high and low stages, population explosion that is
handled much better when the females of the population are more
educated)