SOCI 254 Lecture Notes - Henry Morton Stanley, Triangular Trade

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28 Oct 2012
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Imperialism and Colonialism
- Extensive geographically
- Ruled by a monarch
- Hierarchical structure
- How to form an empire: direct conquest then use imperial force to
control/maintain the empire (result is a territorial empire with little
expectation of expansions), or indirect conquest (unfixed armies, locals
drawn into the imperial armies, ready for use in further expansion,
hegemonic empire)
- Territorial empires have more revenue (extraction of resources)
- Hegemonic empires has less revenue but more flexibility
- Spain’s American empire: very large, run by Spanish officials, small armies,
through the cooperation of local elites, political authorities were established,
administration was handled by Spaniards that came to colonies a couple
times a year, transport/extraction from colonies back to the colonizers
- European empires: partitioning of Africa (all empires are hegemonic),
European powers established a few cities and controlled them directly
(usually poor cities), relatively small European armies stationed to control the
colonies, needed help from locals (forced or paid off to control the colony for
the colonizers)
- Inherent contradiction with this arrangement (Spaniards wanted to extract a
lot): colonizers trained the locals to extract their resources (i.e. teach them
the colonizers’ language, train them with educational skills, military skills, and
administrative skills), build a population that has the skills to organize a
revolution (high cost for the colonizer)
- Nov.16.1532: encounter between Inkahs and Spaniards (Spaniards won)
- Does former colonization explain today’s underdevelopment?
- European colonization came in 3 phases:
1. 16th century (expanded to Caribbean and Latin America): disrupted
agriculture, futile classes lost even more money from this disruption, faced
plagues, elites needed new revenue if agriculture couldn’t provide it,
renaissance was very different from medieval structures that could be used
for expansion (i.e. Galileo)
2. 17th and 18th century: not silver/gold but the exchange of raw materials
(i.e. leather that armies used), needed cattle from the New World, triangular
cotton, sugar, tobacco
(large profits for Europe) EUROPE cloth and guns for Africa
USA African slaves for America AFRICA
3. Industrial imperialism/colonization Spain loses its empire, Simon Boliva
(liberated Latin American and parts of the Caribbean), new form of
imperialism, futile based imperialism was wiped out, new quest for
resources, England was the forefront, large investments (i.e. railroads in the
19th century), moving away from institutionalized plunder and grand scale
theft of resources to capitalism and investment, capital for returns, new
controls, more availability to African resources (i.e. gold and timber), Henry
Morton Stanley exposed this (charted the Congo basin), 1878 king of Belgium
invited Stanley to join him and become his consultant, secret mission to
create the Congo state, 1884 king of Belgium (after the petition of Africa
where Belgium received nothing) organized a conference where many
countries participated to give him legitimacy for his Free Congo State, state
was to raise cultural level and spread Christianity, king created a second
society was purely commercial and bought out all competitors (owned all
commercial activity in the colony), scandal in the early 20th century because
of the production of rubber, Congolese village children were the workers for
the rubber production, highly bureaucratic