Science and technology as the object of study. Individual scientists, theories, observations, inventions should not be studied in isolation, but in their social and historical contexts. The practices, beliefs, norms, and expectations of the scientific community should be seen as examples of general social processes. Things that are seen as normal in the production of science should be questioned. Skepticism toward the image of science as the ideal, pure, modern, rational search for knowledge. Recognition that science, like an institution, is messy. Bound to structures or economic, social, cultural power. Does not deny the reality of scientific knowledge. The discoveries, inventions, publications, and ideas produced by scientists are not outside of society. The meaning and implications of scientific ideas depends on social context. Science is done by scientists in social settings. Scientists live in diverse social contexts that influence their behaviour, expectations, beliefs, ideals, . Laboratories and other research institutions are themselves social settings.