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Lecture 4

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture 4: SFDExamReview-2

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Andrew Wade
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 Six Major Classes of Nutrients: 1) Carbohydrates 2) Fats 3) Proteins (Amino acids) - First 3 are macronutrients 4) Vitamins 5) Minerals - Vitamin and minerals are micronutrients 6) Water Need nutrients for ● growth, maintenance + repair, reproduction. ● We have essential nutrients that our body doesn’t make or doesn’t make enough + thus must be obtained via diet ● Human don't make their own Vitamin C- gained from food, fruits + vegetables that are required to eat everyday ● Not enough = scurvy ● Do not have enough we cannot repair our bodies or make collagen ● Macronutrients- need them in large amounts ● Micronutrients- need them in small amounts Food choices are determined by: ● Food + ​religion​/rituals ● The ​Eucharist​ (transubstantiation) Christian perspective ○ Adam + Eve + the apple ● Ramadan​ not allow to eat + drink during the daylight hours- Islamic practice ○ Fast is broken by a meal later ○ Expected by all muslims 12+ ● Algonquin ‘​Feast of the Dead​’ (ossuary) all bones will be transferred to a central area. Till all the soft tissue gone, with only bones left, the villagers are ready to transit the process of the dead to final step of after life. ○ Women were usually the ones who wrapped the bones ● Ritual ​Sacrifice​ and Cannibalism: the sun god will be fed by blood and heart. Capture of sacrifice system are choosing those who are seems chosen ones. ○ Feeding the sun was the job of the warrior ○ Capture prisoners of war to feed to the sun Gods ● Mexico, Day of the dead and feast of the dead. served with meat, spicy sauces, chocolate ○ It’s a very elaborate affair Food as competition ● Hong Kong bun climbers, the New York hotdog eaters Potlatch ceremonies of the Native tribes: ● Competitive public distribution of property ● The host will lavishly distribute gifts to their invited guests ● People were expected to give Celebrations, rites of passage: Birthday cake, Turkey dinner to give thanks ● Diwali (festival of lights-the triumph of good over evil)- celebrated with sweets, in Nepal ● Island in Hong Kong a yearly prayer for the safety from pirates coincides with the Buddhist birthday + it's celebrated by climbing over massive towers of buns ● Back things in return (the gifts were food, slaves, blankets, names, songs) ● Several days ● Fundamental means of circulating food stuffs ● Developing and maintaining relationships with other groups ● to exchange gifts in winter and celebrate with dancing feasting singing ● to valid status. ● establish and maintaining social relations ​Food is ​sustenance + symbol, biological + cultural, linked to power ​Social networkings in food ● food reporter is a site for amateur cooks + food lovers ● online teaching, photos, real life experiences ● funded by photo competitions that are given a certain theme ● American sites like this are more based on restaurants Cookening: ● Offers ability to sell dishes to people nearby ● People can come + eat real French food by real French people not just a restaurant or hotel staff ● We equate different foods with different social contexts. Eat like our ancestors! Paleo Diet-debunking-TED: Christina Warriner ● It’s thought that our current agricultural diets make us ill + were out of sync with our biology + that we need to abandon these agricultural diets + and move to the Paleolithic period over 10k years ago ● It was mostly meats, plants, seeds, no legumes, grains, processed foods ● No basis in archaeological reality ● Idea started in the 70s with the stone age diet ● Primal ideals-eat lots of red meatàtargeted at men ● Meat Myth​: humans have no known anatomical, physiological, or genetic adaptation to meat consumptionàquite the opposite we have many adaptations to plant consumption ● We did have adaptations to milk ● Plant adaptation with Vitamin C gained ○ Carnivores make their own vitamin C so we NEED it from plants ○ We do not have specialized teeth to shred meat like carnivores and we have a longer intestinal tract to be able to digest food longer ● You are what you eat, there’s nitrogen 15 and 14 ○ We consume it in our food ○ If you measure it in the bone you can confer where the person was in the food chain but there’s a lot of regional variability ○ How can a person be on top of a lion? ○ Ancient Maya lined up with jaguars but they ate mostly corn ● Myth 2-paleolithic people did not eat grains or legumes ○ We have evidence from 20k years ago (way before agricultural period in 20k) that people used stone tools to grind up seed and grain ● Can fossilize dental plaque and recover microfossils of plants, and other remains ○ They ate barley, legumes, tubers, meat, veggies ● Myth 3-Paleolithic foods in the fad diet are what our ancestors ate ○ Usually these foods are all products of farming and agriculture (and domestication) ● Bananas is a genetic clone, they cannot even be grown in the wild anymore ● Lettuce has a lot of latex which is indigestible and irritates our GI system, it’s bitter, the leaves are tough, we have made them taste better ● Olive oil is the only oil that can be harvested without synthetic chemicals (but it’s a farmer food) ● Broccoli didn’t exist in the Paleolithic periods ● 7k years ago in Mexico ○ Fruits, veggies, legumes, meats (but there was a seasonal variability) ○ People had to move from resource patch to resource patch ○ Plants would have a lot of toxins ● No one paleolithic diet (diversity) ● We should be eating a lot of different species but in American diets today basically everything is wheat, soy and corn ● fresh food- whole food ○ we evolved to eat fresh food in season and ripe ○ evolved to eat whole foods ○ when eating meat, they ate bone marrow, organs and meat was usually leaner ○ low fiber diets correlate with diabetes and obesity ​ Early Food Production ● Earliest evidence from Near grasses - 12,000 BCE ○ Southwest asia (middle east) ○ Wild grains and grasses being cultivated and wheated ● Wild grasses - 12,000 BCE ● Domesticated grains - 10,000 BCE Influences on early food production and diet: ● Geography (different altitude) ● Access to water (e.g. complex Nile River in Egypt) ○ Like if we need wheat but we need water to grow it ○ Need rice? Need a lot of water for that ○ Irrigation caused organizations or organizations created irrigation systems? ○ Nile river had very moderate flooding and farmers made use of channels ● Growing Conditions (Different region, temperature, humidity, soil quality) Universals in Human Food Use ● Omnivorous diet ○ Eat anything we can find ○ Adapted to milk ● cooking (boiling, roasting, or frying) ● Intensive food preparation ● Elaborate systems of food distribution, sharing, and exchange ● Food prohibitions and preferences in every culture Food Classification Systems: ● People tend to classify foods in different ways, according to their culture ● Food can be: o Edible-inedible o Hot-cold o Male-female o Wet-dry Hot and Cold classification of Foods In Puerto Rico ● Frio (cold): Avocado, Bananas, coconut, lima beans, sugar cane, white beans, sugar cane ● Fresco (cool): Barely water, bottled milk, chicken, fruits, honey, raisins, salt-cod ● Caliente (hot): alcohol, chili peppers, chocolate, coffee, corn meal, peas, kidney beans - Idea that hot and cold should be balanced in a diet Hot and cold classification of Foods: ● Common in Latin America + Asia ● Originally from Greek Theory of health (4 humours: hot, cold, dry, moist) ● Health - balance of opposing elements ● Basic idea in Greek, Indian (cold foods counteract hot illnesses), Chinese, + Arabic medical system. Food Restrictions: ● Food preferences: likes/dislikes ● Food restrictions: periodic denial of certain foods (e.g. pregnant women) ● Food taboos: “deliberate avoidance of food items for reasons other than simple dislike from food preferences” Food Taboos: ● Pigs-Muslim, Jewish (kosher), Ethiopian Orthodox Christians ● Cows-Hindu (milk and butter are fine) ○ Most devout Hindus are vegetarian ● Carnivores eaten in Few cultures (mushrooms) ● Almost universal taboo against eating humans - Cannibals even usually have taboos against conditions How do we explain food taboos? 1. A maker of a group: a way of separating your group from others (identity) 2. Protection against disease (e.g. trichinosis) ● Can contract this from eating raw parasitic pork 3. Ecological theories (e.g. Marvin Harris) from food preferences to Food taboos. Marvin Harris (1978) India’s Sacred Cow ● cow is sacred (depending on caste too) Eating rats in India ● The people who eat rats are considered unclean and untouchable ● On the outskirts ● Most people despise them as vermin ● Rats eat a quarter of India’s rice crops ● Rats are feared as disease carriers, they can carry rabies and typhus ● They are a low caste so they don’t get the best foods Reasons for food taboos: ● Early anthropologists - quirk of culture ● Environment - not suitable for area or scarce ● Medical reasons - unhealthy ● Economic reasons - more value alive ○ Cows can provide manure, milk, etc. ○ Chickens produce eggs ● symbolic reason - unnatural such as dog ○ In China some people eat dogs ○ Dogs are used for transport, hunting protection, warmth, companionship ○ Services more valuable than meat ○ Dogs will be eaten in cultures where their services are not needed and/or resources are scarce ● social reasons- increase cohesion Summary ● food is more than just nutrition ● as in other cultural areas, food is an expression of our culture ● food is symbolic and ritualized ● explanations for food taboos Aspects of Food Examined in Anthro ● Production ○ How this is dictated by supply and demands ○ How tasks are dictated by the production of food ● Preparation (e.g. cooking) ○ How culinary rules are shared ● Distribution - gifts, exchange, feasts, festivals, markets, political exchanges ● Consumption - socially patterned, what is considered trash? ● Disposal - what is considered trash, who gets leftovers? Carrying Capacity ● The number of people who can be sustained by the resources + envi in which they live -T. Malthus Subsistence Strategy Subsistence affects: settlement pattern; ● foragers - small temporary settlements (hunting + gathering) was a successful subsistence strategy for humans ● Agriculturalists - larger, permanent settlements ● population (large and dense population-does supply meet demand? Food surplus provides security) ● division of labour (gender, farming usually done by males, but not always-recall India) ● Forager Case study: Ju/’hoansi, Kalahari Desert, has no social hierarchy, equity of distribution of food belongs to who hunt them. The people only work 20 hours a week ○ These people gathered 70% of their food (just gathering berries, nuts, fruit, roots) ○ There was no starvation (compare this to the civilized world) ○ 1960s ○ MYTH​ that foragers are constantly looking for food ○ Population factors​: small populations, strategies to curb population ○ Social and cultural factors​: little property and communal sharing. ○ Land, labour, + production in foraging societies:​ open access (communal sense of ownership, reciprocity) ■ Exchanges are not a part of economy ■ They don’t trade with THINGS, they trade with PEOPLE, so there isn’t an unfair trade ■ The value of the object is not important, the relationships between people is ● Was foraging (hunting/gathering) a successful subsistence strategy for humans? Yes Pastoralism​: ● Populations factors​: size and density varies ● combined subsistence strategies​: with foraging and small-scale farming ● land and labor:​ ownership and control of resources and territories. Division of labor ● Case study of Basseri, Iran ○ About 16k of them (southern Iran) ○ Different than egalitarian foragers ○ Many now sedentary ○ Traditionally they would spend summer in the highlands and winter in the lower elevations (just for grazing) ○ They travelled along specified routes (Il-rah-tribal road) so that they do not run their herds into other groups herds, and don’t double up on grazing lands that they are already ○ Milks a key part of their diet + they rarely kill the animals (unless the herds get too big) ○ They don't tend to raise any crops on their own ○ No real specialized jobs, people have to know how to do all the jobs necessary to live ○ Each house had about 30-40 people + 100s of sheep ○ A little social hierarchy, there would be a chief (thought to have descended from noble lineage)-they would organize the group, they might have a head under them Horticulture: ● Agriculture at a very basic level ● Impact of Sedentism and surpluses​: large surplus = larger population ● Slash and burn​: swidden, plant/burn/rotate ○ Field is planted and harvested in one year, all of the inedible plant matter (slash) is left on the field + is burnt at the end of the growing season ○ Farmer then allows the field to rest, + clears a new field, starting that process again, + rotate through a series of fields ● Division of labour​: In some societies, women + men have different tasks to farming ○ Usually the man does the more physical jobs ● Case study: Zuni (New Mexico), man would go to field, Zuni Waffle Garden- small scale. ○ Traditionally matrilineal (tracking family tree through the mother’s line) ○ Zuni men were in charge of politics, war ○ Both genders involved in medicine, storytelling, music ○ Each house (unit) contained one family ○ The units were built around each other + it kind of resembled a more primitive apartment complex (often home to an entire extended clan) ○ Men worked in fields + women would produce crops in waffle gardens ○ Small scale, simple, horticulture ○ Zuni gardens can be quite big Agriculture: ● involves only some members in food production (= specialization, farmers) ● plow agriculture, irrigation ● emergence of a class of producers whose surplus benefits a ruling class ● clear social hierarchies The impact of agriculture: ● fundamental change in the way humans interact with their environment ○ from dependency on natural resources to control over domesticated resource ● Major changes in diet ● Changes in demography, economy, urbanization (storage for surplus, economic changes) ● People not directly involved with agriculture can specialize in different things, like art + agriculture Village Life: ● Domestication ->sedentism ● Investment in architecture ● Decreased infant mortality ->increased population Agriculture not necessarily the next step in human biocultural evolution ● many populations did not adopt agriculture ● ecology more suited to foraging ● e.g. Inuit, Jo/’hoansi, pop’ns in tropical rainforests of Amazon ● Other modes of subsistence ongoing today Why is it important to know about subsistence practices? ● Relationship between humans + environment ● what happens when there are changes (ex- climate change, social change) ● How do changes impact culture? ○ Not just related to food, but other aspects of culture as well ● Inuit village, Alaska o Subsistence Salmon drying practices + resistance to change in a globalizing environment Agriculture: Blessing or Curse? ● We consider agriculture to be fundamental to our subsistence as human being ● What cost? ○ We saw declining health + nutritional status, also food processing ○ In the TOPHAT question, c is wrong (so right) because we actually saw an INCREASE Why nutritional status might decline with agriculture ● dependence on one main crop (or a few) ● change in texture + quality of food ○ wild to domesticated food ○ starchy grains ● Uneven food distribution according to status ○ Led to social stratification ● potential for crop failure Skeletal indicators of poor health ● increased evidence for nutritional deficiencies ○ linear enamel hypoplasia ● Cavities ● Decreased stature ○ Long bones can allow us to infer stature- we see a generalized increase Porotic Hyperostosis-Iron Deficiency Anemia Cribra Orbitalia ● different form of porotic hyperostosis that affects the upper eye sockets Causes of iron deficiency anemia: ● Diet ● Blood loss ● Parasitism ○ Ex- hookworm ○ Parasitism is often the main cause, even over dietary causes ● Chronic disease ● Genetic diseases ● Chronic diarrhea Dental caries: ● Not necessarily an indicate of nutritional status either, but there is def an increase in dental caries in agriculture pops ● We see softer foods, more sticking to the teeth, more processed foods (think periodontal disease- the bone around the teeth is being reabsorbed by the body because of the constant irritation to the gum line) also the addition of refined sugars Enamel Hypoplasia ● General indicator of stress during growth + development (on crown of teeth) Tibia showing Harris Lines ● indicator of stress during growth and development ● Nonspecific, could be caused by nutritional stress, infections. ● Harris lines-indicator of stress during growth + development, on the bones (lines of increased stress) Evidence for improvement in nutritional status with agriculture ● Most studies show a decrease in Harris lines - farmers exposed to less acute seasonal shortages of food ○ If we can produce surplus, we can store it ● For some regions there was an increase in porotic hyperostosis (may not be dietary) but also a slight increase in stature ● Changes in adult stature (cm): Pre-agricultural vs. Agricultural ○ Steady decline Other consequences of agriculture: ● new opportunities for zoonoses - infectious diseases acquired ○ first epidemiological transition ● Sedentism - garbage and human waste accumulate ● High population densities favour "herd diseases" (person - person) (e.g., measles, smallpox, etc… ) ● Infectious disease/nutrition synergy ​Summary ● agriculture provided food stability and population growth. ● Some costs associated with shift to agriculture ● Increase in skeletal and dental pathology ● Agricultural revolution may have initially decreased human nutritional status and health, but this is not universal Chapter 9 Earliest Humans Paleoanthropology is a subfield of bioanthropology ● Interested in study of fossil humans + their ancestors When and where did the first human appear? ● hominid - humans + their direct ancestors ○ sometimes also look at early apes + early primates ● Multidisciplinary: physical sciences (e.g. geology); biological sciences; and social sciences What are fossils? ● organic material ex- bone is replaced by minerals from surrounding soils - petrifaction (preserving in stone) ● remains of ANY life preserved in rocks ○ looking at modern apes + seeing what adaptation they have that compare to humans Where are the earliest fossils found? ● Africa (east and south) àbut there have been some great discoveries in central Africa like Chad ● a lot of complete fossilized skeletons ● there are cave chambers deep down Rising star Expedition ● Dinaledi Chamber, dragon’s back, superman’s crawl, and cave entrance. ● Uncovered over 1, 500 bones ● Things like Lucy (the oldest human like ape) Ardipithecus ramidus​ (~4.4 mya) 35 individuals, same # types of teeth, ape-like, lived in forest, walked upright (bipedalism) ● Oldest fossils typically came from Ethiopia like this ardipithecus ramidus ● May be hominid species placed 6-7 mya (still uncertain about details) ● Look very ape like-thinner teeth than hominids but they have the same number of teeth ● They may have been bipedal-we don’t know ● Big toe is still kinda opposable like an ape or chimpanzee (but not to the full extent)-making transition to bipedal transition ● Fossilized plant + animal remains showed that they live in a forest environment-maybe bipedalism evolved in a woodland area (rather than the hypothesized savannah) What does a hominid look like? ● small front teeth and large molars (compared to other apes) ● bipedalism + associated anatomical adaptations ○ bipedalism is the hallmark of a hominid ● Increase in manual dexterity AUSTRALOPITHECUS AFARENSIS​ (~4-3 mya) ● Lucy ● Ethipoia, Tanzania ● She’s the most complete example of an afarensis ● About 40% preserved ● Have sacrum, lower tibia, really important for the study of the evolution of bipedalism ● S shaped spine, borad pelvis, femur that angled inwards ● She was only about 3-4 feet tall but she was either super short or men were WAY taller (bigger sexual dimorphism) How many millions of years ago would the earliest Australopithecus afarensis have had a chance to meet an Ardipithecus ramidus? ● We used to think it was one after the other but there was actually a lot of overlap ● 3.5 to 4.5 mya Laetoli footprints​ - found in Tanzania (1978) ● If not bipedal, they are not included in the hominid line Major features of bipedalism: ● position of foramen magnum ● Hominid spine has two distinctive curves: lumbar and thoracic ● S-shaped spine is human ● shape of the pelvis - broad and low ● Length of lower limbs (image. ppt) ○ In bipedals, they are elongated ● structure of femur and knee (image. ppt) ○ Angle of femur is important (remember Lucy) ○ In bipedal creatures, the femur is angled inwards ○ Possible in part due to the broad, low pelvis ○ In another non-bipedal creature, the femur goes straight downwards ● shape and structure of the foot (arch) ➢ Each of the following traits is found in a bipedal hominid EXCEPT a foramen magnum far back into the skull Why did bipedalism develop? ● Tool-use? ○ What Darwin though ○ no- earliest tool date to 2.5 mya (bipedalism evolved in 4.4 mya) ○ came before brain cells grew ● efficient scavenging? ○ Comb more territory, look from a greater height ● long distance travel? (humans can travel more efficiently) ○ less energy cost by walking (when bipedal) ○ cheetahs run faster but we are the long-distance champs ○ persistence hunting (keep chasing animals until they become exhausted) ■ Also-sweat glands help ● Predator avoidance? ○ Bipedal made us taller (no longer crouching) Why bipedalism? ● 1960s composed ideas ● Man is now the hunter ● 2-parent family and sexual division of labor ● Large nutritious chunks of food usually only come in meat form ○ But there’s more evidence for scavenging) ● food-sharing and carrying ● Carrying offspring ○ But hominid teeth show they do not eat as much meat as we would think ● enhanced heat loss ○ Bipedalism allowed us to expose less of our body to the sun ○ Reduction of body hair and the inclusion of sweat glands ○ Can move around more easily during the hotter hours of the day ● communication (frees up the hands to perform actions of appeasement, threats to scare others off) ○ makes us look larger to scare predators The Australopithecines ​(~4-2 mya) ● Genus – Australopithecus ● Characterized by bipedal locomotion ● Robust jaws ● Chimp like brains (small) ● Many different species recognized: A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi ● Found in East and South Africa. ○ SA especially Features of Australopithecines: ● Clearly bipedal ● large teeth (esp molars) ○ thick enamel ● mosaic evolution ○ different trait developing at different rates between different species ● small brain Diverse species in East and SOUTH Africa​: Gracile and Robust ● as far as skulls go Paranthropus boisei (​Australopithecus boisei) ● 2.5 - 1 mya ● brain size 510cc ○ half a liter ● features on skull adapted for chewing tough foods ● huge deep jaws to accommodate big teeth ● ridge bone at top of crest ● wide, flat face ● specialized vegetarians but they may have eaten meat as well ● became extinct 1 mya ● boisei vs. modern human (pic) Earliest Evidence for Homo? ● ~2.5 - 1.5 mya ○ Think of overlap ● Rel. larger brain: 20% larger than Australopithecus ● Evidence of stone tools ○ Biocultural adaptation Homo habilis​ (2.5 - 2 mya) ● Used to be considered the oldest homo ● Oldowan tool industry: flakes and choppers/cores. ○ Used to be the oldest in record ○ Now we have found some over 3 million years ago (Kenya) ● Stone tools predate them ○ Kenya ● West in Africa Homo naledi​ (~3 mya) in South Africa ● The work in SA (rising star mission with the cave networks: ● Naledi may be the oldest homo ● Is it a completely different species? ● It is a different region of Africa ● Not associated with the 3 million year old tools Homo Erectus;​ South East of Africa ● ~2- 0.5 mya ○ Pretty recent ● Some anthropologists consider the Asian and African forms of homo erectus to be different species ● We do see this group OUTSIDE of Africa ● Larger body size ● Smaller teeth ● Less sexual dimorphism ● Wide array of tools ○ Not just the simple flake tools ● Bigger brains (like a liter) ○ Flatter cranial vault ○ Projecting brow ridge ○ Occipital Taurus (lump at the back of the skull) ● Atapuerca (Spain) ● first were found in Zhoukoudian (China); 780,000 - 400,000 years ago ● intentional use of fire ● Also called Peking Man ● Stone tools ● All the fossils (found in 1940s) were sunk on a ship during WWII ● Fortunately, casts of the fossils were taken ● And work at the site later turned up more fossils ● There were burned animal bones, seeds, etc ● Cultural adaptation-cooking food makes it easier to chew Could Lucy have met a Homo erectus?​ no, she was around 3-4 million years ago and the homo erectus came about 0.5-2 mya A book of How Cooking Made Us Human​ - Catching Fire by Richard Wrangham ● Safer cooking (gets rid of parasites, etc) ● Less energy in digestion ● Cooking allowed us to evolve from scavengers into what we are today ​Summary​: ● Earliest possible hominid fossils~ 6-7 mya ○ Africa ● Genus Australopithecus appears ~4.2 mya ○ Likely hominid not definitive ● Early hominids - bipedalism; mix of features (mosaic evolution) ○ Small brains ● Many species by 3 mya - adaptive radiation ○ Wide range of adaptations, different species showing different rates of change ● Genus Homo appears ~2.5 mya ● Bigger brains ● Innovations - tools use of fire ● 1st mass migrations out of Africa ​Origins and Dispersal of Homo sapiens sapiens ● when did anatomically modern H. sapiens first appear? (hypotheses, not theories) ○ how did we transition from early to modern homo sapiens? ○ How did we end up all around the world? ● How did the dispersal of H. sapiens take place? ​Multiregional Hypothesis (Model #1) ● based on fossil morphology ● H. erectus ​out of Africa by ~1.25 mya ○ First out of Africa ● populations interbreeding (helps explain how populations could end up physically and genetically very similar) ● Populations linked by gene flow ○ Interbreeding with one another ○ Makes sense why they didn’t adapt into completely different species ● single hominid species since then ● Modern population across from ancient, local lineages. ● is not based on mitochondrial DNA evidence Replacement Model (Model #2) ● recent African Evolution Model ● based on mtDNA ○ genetic evidence, mitochondrial DNA in living populations and seeing how that connects to living pops ○ it is only inherited through the mother (so from mother to daughter) ● modern humans evolve and leave Africa ~50 kya (Migrations to Europe, Asia) ○ genetic drift-changes in genes frequencies ● in this model there is no gene flow or interbreeding with the locals ● Local H. erectus populations replaced Assimilation Model (#3) ● Incorporates both models ● Modern humans evolve and leave Africa 100-200 kya (recent) ○ When pops increased, they extended out of Africa ● H. erectus and H. sapiens population interbreeding. ● Holds that we did have gene flow, interbreeding occurred in this model ➢ àMultiregional Model is NOT based on mitochondrial DNA evidence Neandertal vs. Anatomically modern H. sapiens ‘ ● Neandertals are archaic ○ Sometimes considered a separate species ● a bit shorter than us but a heavier build ● discovered in Neander valley in Germany ● sketch that gives the stereotype was of an older, arthritic individual giving an older hunched appearance ● more recent images and discoveries ● show the actually look quite a lot like us, not even culturally-certainly NOT hulking monsters -close to us even in culture ● stretched out across Europe and West Asia and Middle East ● variations (Europe group being distinct from other populations) ● Big noses, a lot of use of their teeth as tools ○ Noses are a third larger than average adult populations ○ Lots of tooth ware Hypotheses About Distinctive “Classic” Morphology of Neandertals ● adaptation to cold climate (glacial period) ○ large noses allowed them to humidify cold air to protect their lungs ● cranium reflects “industrial use of teeth” ○ teeth ware puts stress on face-results in adaptive pressure and this could have affected their facial shape ● isolation from gene flow with other contemporaneous populations because of glacial climate ● or a combination of all three How closely related are we? ● Did neanderthals contribute their genes to the modern homosapien population Most Humans have a little Neanderthal in them ● Compared mDNA to us ● Neandertals are more closely related to other neandertals than modern humans ● There will be some genetic isolation ● neandertal genome sequenced ● 1-4% of ​nuclear​ DNA is shared between us and them ○ So there was SOME breeding between homo sapiens and neandertals-but no evidence to suggest homo sapiens bred with homo erectus as of yet Summary ● All models support the idea that our origins lie in Africa ● Debate centers on timing and process ● New DNA evidence suggests that we have a bit of Neandertal DNA in us. ● New fossil discoveries permit revised/ new interpretations. Misconceptions about Evolution ● evolution is ‘just a theory’ ● this tends to mean guess to some, but in reality it means a ‘well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world’ ● Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution ○ This will never happen ○ Important that we see trends ○ Not everything is going to be fossilized ● Evolution is a theory in Crisis. (Scientists debate how evolution occurred not IF it occurred) ○ Encourages exploration and testing ● Evolution and religion are incompatible ○ This is pretty recent ○ We used to think that to better understand science is to better understand God ○ Einstein though they should go hand in hand ● Why not teach the controversy? ● ‘humanity’s duty to God to better understand the natural world’ was Sir Francis Bacon’s view Our job: ● explain how scientists use evolution to explain the natural world and how humans evolved Origins of FOOD production ● 99% of human history as foragers ● Hominid ancestors engaged in this ● In evolutionary times this is a new idea Lactose Intolerance- ● Galactose and Glucose ● began to naturally select the humans that had the lactate enzyme and were able to break down milk- these ppl have a tolerance and can break down the enzyme ○ see it a lot in European countries and were cattle herding was important for food and culture ● shows adaptation comes from our culture ● natural adaptation is we can break this down but only up to the age that we drink breast milk (2-5) ● then our body stops making lactase (which breaks lactose down into glucose and galactose) The Mesolithic ● approx. 17 000 - 10 000 ya ● extinction of large-game species ○ people stopped following herds around ● shift to broad spectrum collecting ● less nomadic populations Early Evidence ● middle east ● ~11,500 ya - Natufian ● tool kits for harvesting & grinding, intensive use of WILD cereals ● difference in low and high status burials ● sites were more permanent, increased social complexity ● Barley, pistachio, wild emmer, acorn, almond: all of these are easily stored and don’t go bad fast The evidence is in Ancient “Near East”​ = Modern ”Middle East” Origins of agriculture not one localized event that spread around the globe, i.e. ● Multiple independent centers of innovation 1. The ‘Fertile Crescent’: earliest evidence: c. 11,000 - 10,000 years ago; Domesticated wheat/barley. - Wild vs. Domestic Wheat, Domestic wheat is much bigger and tougher and stay on stock more than wild one. - even ate cat and dog - different environments after ice age - domesticated wheat have seeds and grain that stay on the stock longer because it was easier to gather up the seeds Domestic have larger seeds ● easier for humans but harder for plants to self-propagate and now their life cycle is dependent on humans-which is essentially what it means to be domesticated Wild vs. Domestic corn: Teosinte and Maize ● Maize is the predecessor of corn which still grows in some parts of Mexico ● If maize, beans and squash were planted together, that provides important advantages-maize takes nitrogen out of the soil, beans put nitrogen back into the soil, and the stock acts as a natural pole for beans to grow up, and the squash plants can grow around the base ● From human perspective- beans and corn provide us with all the amino acids we need so we could sustain a life on those too foods alone What is domestication? ● When plants and animals become dependent upon human intervention for survival. How did it happen? ● Unconscious vs. methodical, have both played roles in domestication ● Routine human interactions with plants and animals ● Deliberate selective breeding (dogs) Domestication Benefits: ● Storage: collecting the seeds and kept them from insects. ○ creates the need to stay in a place for a while ● increased yield: bigger seeds overtime, and greater yield in the area. supports higher number of populations ○ increased calories ingested vs calories expended-push between that increased sedentism is supported by that high calorie yield which makes it possible to have more people in a smaller area-often ends up intensifying that process to support higher and high pop levelsàtowards urbanism and away from sedentism When and where did food production begin first? Near East-10k ya Domestication Drawbacks: ● Dental Problems ○ High carb diets get stuck in teeth-if you grind wheat with stones this can also cause ware on teeth ● Nutrition: lack of Vitamin B à caused pellagra ○ Cannot really access it by eating corn, it is in the cells of the corn ○ The ancient Maya actually soaked corn in alkaline solutionà allowed them to get that Vitamin B (they used lyeàprocess called nixtemalisation) ○ The Spanish and Portuguese sailors that took corn back to Europe, they got rid of the husk because they did not know better and missed out on great nutrients ● Resource Access: quality of soil, access to water, increase Wolf - Dog Transition​: transition of wild wolf to dog domestication ● curious wild wolves would spend more time with humans and become dependent on them for food ● their growth patterns changed, and that is how we can make the distinction between dog and wolf ● skulls became smaller and their reproductive patterns also changed-now able to support larger litters because now they have their human partners (their master’s intervention) 26:19 ● they are able to support larger litters and changes for genes for hormones and brain development Animal Domestication -species moved to a location where they are not native-horses are not native to Egypt but we find them there about 4k years ago ● new context ● morphology ○ dog skull is different in wolves ○ retention of juvenile traits ■ wild goats have long horns, domesticated goats have short ones ● size: generally making them small for easier management ○ they will also need fewer of our resources ● sex/ age ratio: female sheep, cow to have milk ○ fewer males ● cultural: burial animal contexts, animal organs could symbolize in some ways. ○ Modifying animals-shearing sheep, clipping wings ○ Some animals become dependent on this because we have bred them to produce more wool ○ A wild sheep would never have as much fur as the sheep on the right, domesticated sheep are bred to keep their wool ■ Will suffer heat issues, parasites ■ Had enough wool on him to make 20 suits Animal Husbandry Pros/Cons ● risk to food source ● labour ○ hunter gatherer is spending 10-20 hours a week hunting and gathering food ​Beginnings ● Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent): cultivation by 13-14 kya. ○ Agricultural communities by 10-11 kya ○ Jericho ○ wheat, peas, beans, ○ sheep, goat, pig, cattle ○ earliest signs of plant animal domestication ● Europe: ○ 6 kya ○ Local and introduced ● East Asia: domestication by 11kya. ○ Earliest vegeculture. ○ Root crops (e.g. yams) ○ Rice. ○ PIG.DOG.CHICKEN àvegeculture-taking a plant dividing it into two, planting it-not just using the seed ● Africa: - Nile Valley - 8 KYA: wheat, flax, lentils, chickpeas; sheep, goat. ○ Central-8kya ○ Animal domestication before plant domestication ■ This is actually unusual-usually sheep and goat were domesticated AFTER plants ○ cattle ● Mesoamerican: Domestication by 7kya. Maize, chili, gourds, avocado ○ (what is now Mexico) ● South America: 6.5 kya. Manioc (this is the basis for tapioca), maize, beans, peanuts, potatoes. ○ If you eat manioc incorrectly it has enough toxins that it can cause paralysis and other cyanide intoxication problems ● North America: Local by 4kya - starchy and oily seeds. ○ Introduced by 1 kya; 3 sisters are maize, squash, and beans Why switch to food production? ● Oasis Hypothesis: Drastic climate change. Dependence on fewer resources. Neolithic Revolution. ○ Domestication of animals, plants, establishment of village life, the appearance of pottery ○ Appearance of ground stone tools instead of flake stone tools ○ Life where you hunt and gather vs where you manage and produce ○ Animals pent up, field close by ○ Infant mortality increases ○ Thought farming spread by diffusion ● Ecological Hypotheses: Learned about local environment. Environment provided opportunity. ○ Domestication was an accident ○ Begins with random genetic mutations-humans focus on this, then etc a cycle forms ● Co-Evolution Model: Incidental domestication from human plant interactions. Not intentional in beginning. ● Population: Pressure Hypothesis: Filled optimal zones. Population increased. Spread into marginal zones. ○ As the pop increased, smaller groups would break off Why Switch to food production? ● Social Hypotheses: ○ Social complexity ■ Potlach ○ Social competition Summary: ● Transition to agricultural food production associated with Neolithic (10 kya) ● not everyone adopted agriculture ● costs The Oasis Hypothesis was associated with a “Neolithic Revolution” of innovations Chapter 10 Food Production and Global Change Vertical Farming ● Production of plants and animals-typically talking about plants thoug
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