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Anthropology - Chapter 3 - Food and Nutrition Continued.docx

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Karen Slonim

Food OriginsEarly Food HabitsEarly peoples food habits derived from what was availableSurvival was driving force that determined what was eatenDifferent places ate different things depending on their surroundings ex Lakes and oceans had fishAgricultural DevelopmentsCivilizations in river valleys could grow crops and domesticate animals who also ate the cropsPeople around the world cultivated crops that were available in their region but all eventually had some sort of grainstarch type cropAll had different animals based on area as wellInfluence Determining Diets GeographyTopography influenced agricultural land useMountainous regions were not good for living in terrain made agriculture impossible and very cold at high elevationLower valleys could be used for grazing animals but only in summerGently rollingflat land was well suited to grow cropsPeople lived where land was fertile enough to grow cropsEnvironmental FactorsWater o Crops must have enough moisture but not too much o Land that was too dry was not good for agriculture o Rice could be grown in areas with lots of raino Wheat grown in areas with moderate amounts of rain o Dry areas needed to irrigate crops to keep them from dying in drought o Crops died in really wet areas because they flooded and washed awayGrowing Conditions o Temperature was key determinant of crop success o Tropical fruits oranges and dates could only survive in warm climates o Length of growing season determined whether a crop could be grown o Corn could not grow in places that did not have 140 warm days for it to mature o Vegetables with short growing season could be grown in colder placesBroadening HorizonsPeople built trade routes across land and seaFood and other goods were carried to market so people in different places could experience food they could not grow where they liveA Capsule of Culture an Conquests Early Cultural SitesEgypt is first earl cultureControlled land along eastern end of Mediterranean Sea and northeastern corner of AfricaConquests and EmpiresCultural centers developed around world but usually isolated from each otherGeographical barriers crossed and knowledge of other groups led to desire for conquest and richesConquerors moved in and food and arts of both cultures were sharedEarly Meditterreanean Cultures o Minoan civilization on Crete flourished because of good environment for farming and safety from attacks of other people o Art was developed and appreciated o Bounty of food supply evident from olive oil and wine found o Ended with a tidal wave and volcano eruption o Myceneans took over Crete and many other places in Greece o Hellenistic Greece Classical Greece began after period of strife o Characterized by achievements in philosophy math and arts o Artistic creations of this era are among leading cultural gifts to world that are still prized today o Dining was important aspect of life for the wealthy of this era o Servants prepared and served food to men who reclined o Women ate separately from men o Meals bread and cake local fruits vegetables seafood cheese from goats milk wine olives olive oilo Roman Empire began in Italy but grew much larger o Significant contributions law government roads aqueducts baths o Food patterns went with them as extended across Europe into Africa and Asia o Introduced cuisine heavy spices thick sauces wine o Roads made it possible to transport food great distancesThe Mongol Empire o Food habits drastically different from Greeks and Romans o Harsh climate and living conditions of native lands created diet based on meats from wild and domesticated animals o Meat sometimes dried for later but most consumed fresh after boiled or fried o Grain made into noodles vegetables and fruits were rare o Meals were means of survival rather than entertainment o Mughal Empire Taj Mahal is architectural MasterpieceWestern Empires o Mayan Empire Incan Empire Aztec Empire
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