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Lecture 7

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Bryan Cummins
Semester
Fall

Description
Anthropology 1A03 November 2 , 2011 Subsistence  It is an element of culture that is interconnected with everything else  Kingship and decent is important in hunting, pastoral societies  Way different societies get the food that people need to survive off of  We categorize patterns of subsistence into two broad types: o 1. Food collectors Hunters and gatherers aka. Foragers o 2. Producers Past  Include 3 types of subsistence: 1) Pastoralism 2) Horticulture 3) Agriculture (Intensive agriculture) o If you are an Inuit in the arctic, it makes no sense to grow crops, its very hard to grow anything in the arctic  There are very different ways of simply “being” o Up until 12,000 years ago, we were all hunters. 99% of our existence as a species we were hunters. Roughly 90% of all of the people who have ever existed, were gatherers and hunters. Domestication occurred, consequently, there are very few hunting societies left: the one’s that are left, are found in marginal (in terms of agriculture) environments. Places such as the subarctic, arctic, tropical rain forests and desert areas. E.g. South Africa and Australia o A large population of the world, views hunting societies as “primitive”, this is not true. o In hunting societies, men are the hunters, and generally speaking women are the gatherers. In 1967, there was a conference called “man the hunter”, all the anthropologists got together in this conference, and compared the data: the most important finding that came out of this conference was in H&G societies, women produced the bulk of the food, and on average somewhere between 60-70 percent produced in H&G societies were produced by women. A few years following this, was a conference called “Women the gatherers” o Very important to note people do NOT hunt randomly. Hunting is a science. People follow what is called, a “seasonal round”, which is based upon availability of species, game cycles, population cycles, all of these things, all of which are rooted in deep awareness of the total environment. o September and October, the Cree hunt two species: geese and moose, a moose produces roughly 400 pounds of meat. This takes place in the fall time, even fishing is done sometimes. From December/March, they hunt caribou (120 pounds of meat), hare, bunnies, and ptarmigan. The men in Attawapiskat, kill about 6-8 caribou in the winter. In April/May, they continue fishing, but it is also the goose season again. Through the summer months June/August, no big game hunting, but fishing. Moose goose and caribou are the main species for the Cree. o Hunting is based on a scientific knowledge o Hunting societies live in what we call “bands” o Pastoralism- subsistence based upon animal husbandry, it is a pattern of subsistence that is based on the breeding, and maintain of large herd animals. These herd animals usually include sheep, goats, cattle, camels, yak, and reindeer. Pastoral societies found in marginal areas, but those marginal areas tend to be arid, semi-arid areas. There are a few exceptions, which include reindeer, which are found in arctic areas, Europe and Asia. The animals are not values for their meat, they are valued for what they produce, what they produce is milk, wool and milk products (cheese etc.), blood. These animals are only consumed as meat, when they are beyond producing age. Pastoralists are generally speaking of two types: 1) Nomadic pastoralism Why are pastoralists nomadic? Because they must go in search of water and grass. Inevitable result of this, nomadic pastoralists, got into constant battles and warfare with sedentary farmers, why? Because pe
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