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8th-November 26-pre-colonial death.docx

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Karen Mc Garry

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November 26  About 10 00 years ago people shifted from being hunter gathers to agriculture we have changes in diseases.. epidemiological transition  This co-insides with the productions of food.. from collecting wild food to cultivated crops  Huge changes on human bone…. Agriculture is not a healthier lifestyle  Hunter and gatherers was main sources of subsistence for about 99% of the time  With hunter gatherers its called a Paleolithic diet.. eating lots og veggies, fruits, nuts, fish most of their carbs would come from starches, potatoes  because they were on the move they were walking continually getting exercise  one particular crop started to dominate as a staple  in first nation groups, corn was the staple (they would grind it down to flower etc.,)  all of these food resources were great for giving carbs but aren’t good for us in large quantities  with the transition in agriculture we had a move in sedentary lifestyle (living in one spot for a long time)  this leads to a sedentary lifestyle  it supports higher density people  with large populations emerging you get new forms of diseases  Closer contact with animals on day to day basis.. leads to new opportunities to zoonosis (infectious diseases that can be acquired from animals)  Cattle can give tb  Rats can give flea borne diseases like the plague  Goats- Mediterranean fever  As people are more sedentary it leads to problems in sanitation  Herd diseases – transmitted from people to people (mumps, measles, small pox etc.,)  Agriculture society – people lacked iron which leads to pitting in the bones (on the back of the head, under the eyebrow etc,) only after a long period of time  Rely more on a plant based diet.. may plants contain phytates (compounds that make the absorption of iron difficult as a result body produces more red blood cels  Get mre iron deficient population in general (corn has a lot of phytates)  Introduction of cavities and tooth decay  Nubines – they transition from hunter gatherers to agriculturists 8 000 years ago…huge increase of cavities and tooth decay right after domestication of plant resources  8000 years ago 0.8% cavity rate… after plant cultivation 40% cavity rate  Neanderthals had no cavities  Rats 10 000 years ago had high amounts of the type bacteria that are responsible for tooth decay  This could be a particular zoonosis  Hypoplasia these are striations on the teeth (horizontal)  This is an indication of maln
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