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Anthro week 10.docx

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McMaster University
Mosey Nicholas J

Anthropology- week 10 th Monday March 10 , 2014 Malnutrition: Under nutrition Global Hunger: Fast Facts -925 million people do not have enough to eat -98% of the world’s hungry people live in developed countries -Asia and the pacific is home to over half the world’s population, but are nearly 2/3 of the world’s hungry people- disproportion Child Hunger: -10.9 million children under 5 die in developing countered each year -1 out of 4 children in developing countries= under nutrition -lack of vitamin a Malnutrition: any kind of poor nutrition, including too much food, too little food, or an improper balance of the wrong foods (foods that don’t provide enough nutrients) Human nutrition: depends not only on food intake, but also on energy expenditure (activity level), and their state of health Total energy and calorie deficiency Negative energy balance: when a person’s dietary energy consumption is less than their energy output Measuring under nutrition -specific age and sex -reference population -calculating z scores: the difference between the weight or the height or the median value (middle value) at that age and height in the reference population -a child whose height-for-age is less than -2 STDV (standard deviation) is considered stunted -a child whose weight-for- age is -2 STDV is considered underweight -a child whose weight-for-height is -2 STDV is considered wasted Severe of acute: “wasting”: low weight for height Chronic: “stunting”- may be appropriate weight for age, but low height-for-age Underweight: both wasting and stunting “Small but healthy” hypothesis -David Seckler -hypothesised that children who are stunted but not wasted should not be considered to be malnourished -argued that children should be considered in their own ecological context; bc of their environment, their growth might be slowed bc of that but that doesn’t mean they won’t develop properly Famine -specific to sedentary or state societies -don’t see this in hunter gatherer societies -thought of as natural disaster, like earthquakes, hurricanes, etc -famines don’t happen just like natural disasters, there are also economic and political factors that cause a famine -In order to prevent famine, a country requires: 1. Adequate reserves of food 2. Good re-distribution schemes 3. Good transportation networks Irish potato famine -mid nineteen century -worst years 1846-1850 -Caused by the potato blight- disease causing the potatoes to mold and rot -Potatoes where the Irish’s main crop; they were dependent on it -peasants moved to Ireland, and potatoes were introduced to these peasants -population expansion happened because of the potato success -Malthusian: a population naturally outgrows its food source -2.5 milli people died from starvation or emigration (died on the ship en route to another country bc of the famine) Summary -child malnutrition is extensive but is not always visible -there is debate about how we classify children’s nutritional status in developing countries -famine is about more than just natural disasters; human or anthropogenic factors (human causes factors) always play a role Malnutrition and Hunger -malnutrition part 2 What happens if not enough food is consumed? -body turns to energy reserves in the short term: -Glycogen- starch stored in lover and muscles -Adipose tissue- body fat Prolonged starvation -early stages: loss of body fat -BMR (basal metabolic rate) and body temperature decreases -if plenty of carbs, t
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