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Anthro 1Z03- Primate Evolution- Ch 8.docx

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McMaster University
Hendrik Poinar

Primate Origins and Evolution (Ch.8) Anthropology 1Z03- February 24, 2010 “INCLASS LEARNING ASSIGNMENT”- 1 Hour- Chapters 7,8,9,10- Wednesday March 10 , 2010 Note: Time Periods to know:  Mesozoic’s Era’s Cretaceouis Period (Reptiles and Dinosaurs)  and the beginning of the Cenozoic Era’s Tertiary Period (65mya)  Epochs: o Paleocene (65-55mya) o Eocene (55-34mya) – Global Warming occurred (warm and wet) o Oligocene (34-24/23 mya) – cooling/dry cycle (grasslands appear) o Miocene (24/23-5 mya) – age of apes (warm and wet – forest expansion) o Pilocene (5 mya) Overview of Human Evolution:  Oligocene Epoch o Earliest African apes (first hominods- semi-terestrial)  Miocene Epoch o Many ape forms  After 7 mya o  11-5 mya o “Gap” in the fossil record o Sachelanghropus Orroin and Ardipithecus ramidus  8-5 mya o Cold/dry period = tropical forest constriction/ retraction o Bipeds first seen (prediction) = first hominoids= change in hip structure  4.5 mya o Widely excepted evidence for first bipeds (Ardipithecus ramidus)  Pliocene Epoch o Various biped species and migrations out of Africa  New ecological niches (due to K-T boundary)- meteorite impact o Cooling occurs- many species died out o Survivors = leaders of new lineages o Adaptive radiation of placental mammals  Expansion into new environments  Generalized species becomes many more specialized species  New species arise with new habitats (speciation)  Rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches  Cenozoic Era = Age of mammals Transforming Species (Leading to Primates)  Pleisiadapiforms (65- 55 mya) o Early primate like mammals o Found in various places around the world o Lack primate traits (convergent orbits, claws no nails, gap inbetween jaw) o “Pro-Primates” – coming before primates  Carpolestes o Type of Pleisiadapiform - from Wyoming, USA o May provide evidence to ancestral true primates o Opposability, nail on big toe, grasping foot o May be link between true primate (Euprimates) and Proprimates  Adapids and Omomyids (Euprimates) o 55 mya- Define the presence of primates o Vision essential, non-specialized teeth, postorbital bar, nails, relatively large brain, opposability o Small creature (7kg) o One digit can fit on that of a human thumb nail o Omomyids  Nocturnal- may have lead to modern tarsiers  May be anthropoid ancestors, if tarsiers are closer to anthropoid than lemurs (Szalay’s argument) o Adapids  Diurnal- may have lead to lumurs and possibly anthropoids  Along with anthropoids, adapids do not have a “Dental comb” (near mandibular incisors) while lemurs do  Basil Anthropoids o 42 mya: in the Eocine Epoch o Proof: Eosimias (from China)- very tiny o Has ankle bones (tarsal’s) which relate to climbing in trees o More rotation and movability than compared to the previously discussed organisms = closer to Anthropoids o Proof II: Biretia (from the Fayum Depression- Egypt)  Ate fruit and seed- bicuspid molars  Could be closest Anthropoid ancestor or evolved from Eosimias Note: Fayum Depression (Earlier Oligocene)- diverse habitats seen o Fossil rich environment o Gave rise to two main Primate-like species o Parapithecids and Propliopithecids o Parapithecids likely led to platyrrhines (flat nose New world monkeys)  Have 3 upper molars (2/1/3/2 or 2/1/3/3)  Branisella= first New World platyrrhine (Bolivia- 26 mya) How did New and Old World Monkeys end up in the same areas?  Independent origins (parallel evolution)  North American evolution  Africa to America via “Sea hopping”  Africa to Sou
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