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Forensics lecture 5

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Andrew Wade

04/01/2014 Jan 17/2014 Establishing Forensic Significance Important to Determine Forensic Significance Saves time and effort if not forensically significant Is it human and worth and investigation Reduces stress, anxiety of families with missing relatives Is it animal or human? Smithosonian 10-15% of cases are animal Bill Bass Univ of Tennessee 25-30% of cases are animal ▯ 13 % ancient and 5% historic human remains- more recent 46% significant 1: size and architecture look at shape and angle of joint surfaces major diff between arc of bone of persons who walks on 2 legs than 4 legs femur of human and dog share similarities- proximal end, shape and prop similar, short neck on dog, distal end, different articulate surfaces human vertebra vs cow vertebra ▯ similar in size but cow a bit bigger cow stick out whereas in humans swept posteriorly, based on how we move and the size and orientation of muscles 2: Maturity look at ends of bones (epiphyses) if unfused=child epiphysis=usually at ends of bones location where growth occurs product of growth and dev -infant- we will have cartilage models of bones -cartilage in epiphysis and diaphysis and this will cont to grow and ossify and then bone will start growing and will fuse epiphyseal union early on, cartilage will break down so left with hard tissue, epi may fall off if not fused, partially fused so hang on and wiggly if not careful then they will fuse, but still see line where growth rate started to fuse and later in life growth line obliterated diff in size and shape of joints -diff in distal and more in proximal- animal flat lump at end of bone Adult animal- Femur= ends not fused Human subadult- Femur= ends not fully formed adult animal bone is smaller but when it is tis size compared to short child bone, wont have fused epiphysis but animal will Femur BEAR Similar in size (shorter) More robust No neck Cortical bone is thicker, has flat lumpy head HUMAN More delicate Defined neck Rounded head Cortical bone isn’t that thick Animals that look most like us Nonhuman primates Most similar in infancy Similarities decrease with age Good news- not common in forensic cases in N.America Ex. Bonobo Skeleton shape is similar to us but diff at knee General Considerations Animal bone is generally more Dense Heavier for size Defined surfaces and edges More angles and ridges Cranium Human High vault, rounded forehead Fragments uniformly curved Foramen magnum a base of skull ( in animals have it further back) Animal Fragments flat or sharply curved Foramen magnum at back of
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