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Lecture 4

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Mycobacterium Bovis, Biomedical Technology


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Andrew Wade
Lecture
4

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January 23/2017
Lecture 4 Disease
Illness and Disease
- Illness perceptions and experiences of a health problem
o Social experiences
- Disease biological health problem
o Universal
o Often at the root of experience
Major Types of Evidence
- Skeletal and Dental Pathology
o Signs of infection
o Ancient treatment of disease
Cutting holes in peoples heads
Varies from place to place
o Everyday habits
Mummies Soft Tissue
- Mummifying humans and animals is important source of information to look at past
o Intentional and natural mummies
o Tissue samples of humans
To find out what caused diseases
- Trace coevolution bacteria which affected us
Paleopathology
- The study of disease and injury in the human skeleton and sometimes mummies
- Subfield of physical anthropology
- Reconstructive
o Try to reconstruct as best as we can the presence of disease
o We have no control and very little idea about which variables were present
during the infection
- Establish presence of disease based on evidence from skeletal remains
Some Variables that Affect the Expression of Disease
- Nutritional status
o Malnutrition more prone to contracting disease
- Immune response
o Strong may not necessarily suffer
o May be infected briefly but fight it off
- Age of the individual
o Tendency for younger children and older adults to be at a higher risk for many
disease
o Ex. Cancers
o Hormonal difference between said individuals
- Social conditions
o What technology did they have access too?
o What technology did they feel the need to employ?
o Land use how were people settling in land?
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o Gender roles
Affects how they will be exposed to certain diseases
What their immune response would be
- Environmental conditions climate
o Can change timing and impact of disease outbreaks
o Ex. Malaria
If it does’t lie i a partiular eiroet, the e are’t goig to get it
Limitations of Skeletal Evidence
- Skeletal sample does not equal a sample of living people
- Small % exhibit skeletal lesions
o Not everyone is going to have signs of disease on their bones
o Samples get smaller
o Not all diseases cause changes to skeleton
Those who do, only a small percentage will actually show those changes
Ex. Tuberculosis can change in result to the scalp BUT only 5% of people
who are infected will show result of disease
- The Osteologial Parado
Osteological Paradox
- Changes to bone are slow
- Most infectious diseases will only affect the skeleton in chronic phases
o After person has lived with the disease, only some will show changes in scalp
- Good immune response for bony changes
- Poor immune response leaves disease-free bones
o Will die off early before scalp starts showing change
Porotic Hyperostosis Iron Deficiency Anemia
- Porotic = porous bone
- Idea is to increase red blood cell
- Hemoglobin is absorbed by dietary sources
o Poorly from plant sources
- Could be due to genetic causes
Dental Caries
- Some of the most common diseases throughout history
- Cavities
- Changes in the rate of dental care
o How frequent they are in peoples mouths
o Changes in diets and consistency of diets
Ex. Adding softer foods, more carbs, more refined sugars
- Increase in dental caries in agricultural populations
- How we grind down surfaces of our teeth
Enamel Hypoplasia
- General indicator of stress during growth and development
o Could be caused by any number of things
o Vitamin deficiency
- Could be delayed
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- Shows up as defect on visible surface of tooth
Changes in Adult Stature (cm): Pre-Agricultural vs. Agricultural
- General decline in stature in new stone age
o Exploiting fewer and fewer food resources
Other Sources of Evidence: Ancient Descriptions & Art
- Egypt medical text
o Not every society is going to have them
o If they do have them, the way they go about describing these illnesses may not
gie us the kid of iforatio e’re iterested i or are ale to ake diagoses
of
Other Sources of Evidence: Coprolites (Fossilized Feces)
- Can look at DNA and see how they were evolving sites
Other Sources of Evidence: Faunal (animal) Evidence
- Parasites in soil
o Ex. Worms
- Evidence of disease in animals
o Ex. Dogs, cattle
98% of Human History as Foragers
- Hunter gatherers
- Paleolithic Diet
o Lots of vegetables
o Low in fat, sodium, and carbohydrates
- Little or o diseases of affluee
o Modern diseases ex. heart diseases
o Mostly die by trauma
Epidemiological Transition Theory
- Epidemiology study of the determinants, dynamics and distribution of disease
- Based on worldwide data
- 3 ajor trasitios i disease patters
- Associated with major changes in human way of life
- Shifts in human ecology new disease ecology eergig or e diseases
1st Epidemiological Transition ~10,000 y.a.
- Food production altered human relationships with environment
- Archeological evidence ~ 10,000-12,000 y.a.
- Cultivation
- Domestication
o The process through which plants and animals come completely under human
control
o Bring into the household
o Genetic changes which make animals and plants better suited to humans
Impact of Agriculture (~10 kya)
- Change in the way humans interact with their environment
- Major changes in diet
- Changes in demography, economy
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