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Lecture 1

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Pastoralism


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Andrew Wade
Lecture
1

Page:
of 3
Gender Subsistence and Gender in the Past
Tasks and Gender
- division of labour by gender coordinates activities
Division of labour
- often complimentary
- wromens roles are affected by reproductive role (nursing, infant care)
- roles can change when economic and social factors change
Foragers
- peoples whose subsistence pattern is hunting and gathering
- mobile: follow the food
- reciprocity: trading
- food sources include
ogame hunting
ofishing
ocollecting
Gender in foraging Societies
- most display gender equality but related to source of food
- ex. Inuit
- diet based mainly on meat and fish
- emphasis on male labour (hunting/fishing =dangerous)
- increased male dominance
Pastoralism
- subsistence strategy focusing on raising and caring for large herds of domesticated
animals
- men herd cattle
Horticulture
- subsistence strategy that focuses on small scale farming using relatively simple
technology
ohoe not plow
Gender in Pastoral and Horticultureal societies
- related to control of the distribution of produce and goods
- Egalitarian societies (women and men have comparable economic roles)
- Non egalitarian societies = men control property
Agriculture
- subsistence strategy focusing on intensive farming, investing a great deal of time,
energy and technology
- centralized governments
- surplus production
- social stratification
- sedementism (stay in one place)
Gender in Agricultural Societies
- increasingly complex society
- variable degrees of male dominance
- depends on local circumstances
Summary
- gender influences work/labour in all societies
- foraging societies: gender equality when all contribute equally to subsistence
- horticulture/pastoral societies: increased male dominance, but females can have
independence at times
- agriculture societies: least amount of gender equality
Archaeology of Gender
- gender roles and gender relations
- not just what did males vs. females do
- how did gender affect social dynamics in past society?
- what contributions did men and women make to past societies?
Grinding Grain on a Saddle Quern at Abu Hureyra
- show repetitive stress on bones
- collapsed vertebrae
- muscular arms and legs
- demanding physical activity
- thought these people were engaged in sports but found it was involved with
kneeling
- results were long hours spent grinding grain
Gender & Society at Catalhoyuk
- “the world’s first city”
- urban characteristics
- craft specialization
- social stratification
- highly developed symbolism
- shrines
- no central buildings
- shrines
- religious political authority
- female dominated religion
Thought Society to be Created by Women:
ofigurines
owall paintings
oburial practice
Mellaart’s Interpretations
- figurines
owomen preferentially shown
oovertones of power ex. Throne
osome in rare materials ex. Marble
omistress of animals
omade of clay
oprovocative female images
- wall paintings
obirth scenes
ocolour symbolism: men = red-tan (outside), women = white-pale (indoors)
- Burial practices
oWomen buried with endorment items
oMen buried with tools/weapons
New Perspectives on Gender at Catalhoyuk
- new methodology
- new theoretical approaches
- new site data
Modern Interpretations
- figurines
omost depict animals
omost humans are amorphous/no sex shown
omen also shown in figurines
ohowever
most elaborate are women
represent changing world view
- wall paintings
obirthing characters (animals)
oearlier examples with tails
oCatalhoyuk bear stamp seal
Gendered Division of Labour
- stress markers: no major distinction in activities
- skull in relation to body
- soot in lungs: male/female equally exposed indoors to smoke (carbon residue due
to mud houses)
Stable Isotope Analysis
- no statistical variation in diet between women and men
- apparently shared diet (not man the hunter/meat consumer)
- look at what people eat
- dietary distinction between gender
Gender at Catalhoyuk
- other aspects of identity more important
- age/experience
- kinship
Significance
- gender can be explored in the past
- integration of multiple lines of evidence
- scientific method permits re-examination/reinterpretation of evidence