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Lecture 13

ANTHROP 1AA3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Homo Habilis, Homo Sapiens, Milford H. Wolpoff


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTHROP 1AA3
Professor
Tracy Prowse
Lecture
13

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Human 'Family Tree'
adaptive radiation
all different species around 1 mill. years ago went extinct
pattern/reason why certain species went on to survive?
human evolution come from Africa (east & south in particular)
Gracile and Robust Australopithecines (see ppt. pictures of skulls)
A. afarensis
A. africanus
A. boisei
A. robustus
A. aethiopicus (sometimes called P. aethiopicus)
*In text: know difference between gracile and robust, and these ^ specific types
(characteristics)
Origins & Evolution of Genus Homo
-text pp. 234-247 (up to archaeology & subsistence agriculture)
Homo Habilis
Habilis: means 'handy man'
-intentionally produced stone tools first found in the study, thus the name handy man
Existed from ~2.5-1.8 million years ago
They had a relatively larger brain
-increase in growth of brain
-other advances: fire, use of tools, etc. -> associated with the size of the brain
First evidence of stone tools.
Still only found in Africa
-core of the evolution of humans; found there first
Homo Habilis tools (called Oldowan)
2 main types of tools:
Choppers/cores
Flakes
Trend in Increase of Brain Size
see ppt. chart
Homo Erectus
different than Homo Habilis, number of changes
first fossil specimens found outside of Africa
~1.8 -0.4 million years ago

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Larger body size
Less sexual dimorphism
-(differences between males and females)
-however, gorillas and chimps have huge sexual dimorphism differences
Wide array of tools
-develop and refine specific tools
-start to look like actual tools
Bigger brains
Increase in cranial capacity
First time in evolutionary practice, see evidence outside of Africa for first time
-means humans started moving out of Africa: Europe, Middle East, South East Asia,
Indonesia
-continents used to be a lot closer together; did not require for transportation across
large bodies of water
-see the movement of humans. had enough skill & tools to do this
Sites where found homo erectus specimens, first found the intentional use of fire
-~780,000-400,000 years ago
-Zhoukoudian (China)
-tells us that homo erectus was cooking their food
-evidence of burned animal bones, seeds, ash
-tells us that homo erectus had ability to utilize fire
-book: Catching Fire by Richard Wrangham -> fire important because able to consume
more food, more meat, suggests that instead of putting our energy into digestion this
opened up possibility for energy to be opened up to our brains -> allowed for
development of bigger brains -> allowed for intellect
Origins and Dispersal of Anatomically Modern Homo Sapiens
we, present humans, are homo sapiens
anthropologists look at: when did anatomically modern H. Sapiens first appear? How did
the dispersal of H. Sapiens take place?
Multiregional vs. Replacement Model
Text pp. 243
debates about the occurrence of human evolution
2 different models that are hypothesis (also a third, Hybridization & Assimilation Model)
Gene flow -> populations are not reproductively isolated; there is breeding & human
movement -> independent development but some contact
Replacement Model (pp. 242-243)
proposed by Chris Stringer
his idea: Modern humans evolve and disperse throughout Africa - 200,000 years ago
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