ANTHROP 1AB3 Lecture Notes - Forensic Identification, Forensic Anthropology, Expert Witness

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Identity and forensic identification
Dignity and respect
Why study the dead?
Learn form the dead to protect the living
Dignity of the dead
Feelings of the living
Prosecute responsible parties
Sudden death, or missing family member- bewildering, devastating experience
Forensic sciene
Forensic: relating to or used in courts of law
Forensic science: the application of scientific techniques to the discovery, collection, analysis
and presentation of evidence in a court of law
Forensic anthropologists
Death investigation team; - coroner/medical examiner, police, experts and lab techicians
Assist police/coroner to: locate map and revover him remains
Analyze human remains present results in court
Forensic anthropology
Field to lad to court
Reconnaissance
Search design
Search
Recovery
Documentation
Analysis
Expert witness testimony
The biological profile
Analysis of human skeletal remains to determine the individuals physical attributes and
condition
Used in: bioarcheolgy and demography and forensic anthro
Forensic significance- are theses remains part of a crime?
Life/death/crime reconstruction
Identification- comparison of remains to missing person list
Inventory
Mini- minimum number of individuals
Sex
Age at death
Ancestry
Stature
Trauma
Pathology
Taphonomy- effect of environment in individual
Modifications- deliberate changes to body
Time since death
MNI
MNI- minimum number of individuals
multiple burials, plane crashes, mass graves
Many methods- pick one unpaired element e.g skull, right fumur
Sex determination
Metric: based on measurements of size
- Formulae for almost every element
- Males greater than females for size
- Ancestry dependent
Non metric: differences in shape that occur at puberty
- Pelvis
- Adults verus children
Age estimation
Age at death
Always expressed as an age range
Children:
- Based on well-known developmental marker: teeth, long bone fusion
- Reasonably accurate and precise
Adults:
- Based on degenerative changes
- Joints, dental wear, histology
- Not as accurate as in children
Stature
Meausrements of long boes
Femur, ribia, fibula- most reliable
Vertebrae
Upper limb
Equations
- Ancestry specific
Trauma
Type- blunt, sharp, projectile, fracture
Timing
- Antemortem- before death
- Perimortem- around the time of death
- Postmortem- after death
Pathology
Presence of disease
Etiology- how the disease was caused and progressed
Metabolic, nutritional, infectious disease, inflammation, autoimmune, neoplasis
Bone responds by:
- Restoration or addition or both
- Differential diagnosis
Modification
Antemortem or postmortem
Cultural- occupational, ceremonial
Criminal- hiding evidence, hiding identity
Taphonomy
Effects of the environment on bone for death to recovery
Staining
Animal scavenging
Weathering
Burning
Chemically treatment
Deliberate modification
Water
Imp for- crime reconstruction, time since death estimation
Putting it together
Identification
Comparison of known to unknown
Presumptive- match, not sufficient for court of law
Positive- match and exclusion

Document Summary

Learn form the dead to protect the living. Sudden death, or missing family member- bewildering, devastating experience. Forensic: relating to or used in courts of law. Forensic science: the application of scientific techniques to the discovery, collection, analysis and presentation of evidence in a court of law. Death investigation team; - coroner/medical examiner, police, experts and lab techicians. Assist police/coroner to: locate map and revover him remains. Analyze human remains present results in court. Analysis of human skeletal remains to determine the individuals physical attributes and condition. Used in: bioarcheolgy and demography and forensic anthro. Identification- comparison of remains to missing person list. Many methods- pick one unpaired element e. g skull, right fumur multiple burials, plane crashes, mass graves. Non metric: differences in shape that occur at puberty. Based on well-known developmental marker: teeth, long bone fusion. Etiology- how the disease was caused and progressed. Metabolic, nutritional, infectious disease, inflammation, autoimmune, neoplasis.