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ANTHROP 2FF3 Lecture Notes - Faiyum Oasis, Eosimias, Adapidae

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Hendrik Poinar

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Primate Origins and Evolution (Ch.8)
Anthropology 1Z03- February 24, 2010
“INCLASS LEARNING ASSIGNMENT”- 1 Hour- Chapters 7,8,9,10- Wednesday March 10th, 2010
Note: Time Periods to know:
Mesozoic’s Era’s Cretaceouis Period (Reptiles and Dinosaurs)
and the beginning of the Cenozoic Era’s Tertiary Period (65mya)
o Paleocene (65-55mya)
o Eocene (55-34mya) Global Warming occurred (warm and wet)
o Oligocene (34-24/23 mya) cooling/dry cycle (grasslands appear)
o Miocene (24/23-5 mya) age of apes (warm and wet forest expansion)
o Pilocene (5 mya)
Overview of Human Evolution:
Oligocene Epoch
o Earliest African apes (first hominods- semi-terestrial)
Miocene Epoch
o Many ape forms
After 7 mya
11-5 mya
o “Gap” in the fossil record
o Sachelanghropus Orroin and Ardipithecus ramidus
8-5 mya
o Cold/dry period = tropical forest constriction/ retraction
o Bipeds first seen (prediction) = first hominoids= change in hip structure
4.5 mya
o Widely excepted evidence for first bipeds (Ardipithecus ramidus)
Pliocene Epoch
o Various biped species and migrations out of Africa
New ecological niches (due to K-T boundary)- meteorite impact
o Cooling occurs- many species died out
o Survivors = leaders of new lineages
o Adaptive radiation of placental mammals
Expansion into new environments
Generalized species becomes many more specialized species
New species arise with new habitats (speciation)
Rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological
Cenozoic Era = Age of mammals
Transforming Species (Leading to Primates)
Pleisiadapiforms (65- 55 mya)
o Early primate like mammals
o Found in various places around the world
o Lack primate traits (convergent orbits, claws no nails, gap inbetween jaw)
o “Pro-Primates” – coming before primates
o Type of Pleisiadapiform - from Wyoming, USA
o May provide evidence to ancestral true primates
o Opposability, nail on big toe, grasping foot
o May be link between true primate (Euprimates) and Proprimates
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