ANTHROP 2FF3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Homo Ergaster, Homo Rudolfensis, Orrorin

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2 Aug 2016
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Genus Homo
Many early Homo fossils similar to late Australopithecus
Expected close to divergence point
Large increased brain expansion and association of tool with toolmakers
Possible Australopithecus could have made tools
Two distinct “grades”
Homo habilus
Homo erectus
Early evolution of Homo
Increased brain size
oUse and manufacture of stone tools
oCute marks on bones
oHigher quality broader diet
oBetter ability to survive resource shortage
Increase body size (mass and stature)
oMore efficient bipedalism
oLong distance locomotion
oWider ranges
Pelvic Changes
oCaused by increased brain size
Large brained babies
oLed to changes in the mechanics of bipedalism
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Cast of Characters
Homo Rudolfensis (2.5-1.8 MYA)
oMalawi but issues with the Dating
oAnatomy
Transversely broad face
Strong postorbital constriction
Robust jaw and teeth but less than australopiths
Long molars
Small premolars
Deep mandibles
oNo post cranial material
First stone tools date ( 2.5 MYA)
similar to in time to appearance of Homo Habilis
Olduvai “choppers”
oUnifacial stone tools
oPart of Oldowan tradition
oCut marks on bone evidence of meat processing
Homo Habilus/ “Handyman” (2.5-1.4 MYA)
oDiscovered in 1960 by Louis Leakey Tanzania
oDated to 1.8 MYA
oComplete foot with inline big toe, jaw, cranial fragments
oHomo like
Reduced molar tooth size and facial prognathism
Increased brain size (640cc)
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